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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics

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  1. To what extent was effective Royal Government re-established in England in the years 1471-83?

    Edward became more aware of the events happening around him so that he could be able to use it for the crown's own advantage and restore his finance policy. For example he did not attaint the Duke of Warwick and the Duke of Montagu so that his brothers; Richard Duke of Gloucester and George Duke of Clarence married the Warwick's and Montagu's daughters. This enabled them to inherit their lands, not only did this increase the crown's powers and respect but also their income as they had more domains.

    • Word count: 1325
  2. How far do you agree with these sources that Wolsey monopolised political power?

    the laws of the country and ''rule'' by his own views and manners by simply suggesting what he wanted to Henry and because Henry was almost never interested in paperwork tasks, Wolsey was easily able to use him as a ''puppet'' to obtain more political power, he was so powerful that he was able to hold a peace treaty between England and several other countries. Elton wrote that the only reason why Wolsey lasted so long was because despite his terrible finance skills, Wolsey was able to make himself appealing and showed that he was a loyal servant to Henry but also maintained Henry quiet by creating military events such as The Field Of The Cloth Of Gold in 1520.

    • Word count: 1466
  3. How popular was the policy of Imperialism in England in the period from 1880 to 1902?

    the battle of Omdurman on the 2nd September 1989 and British opinion was in favour of avenging the death and taking control over the Sudan, when this was done it created great upsurge in popularity towards imperialism. This great popularity did not last long and the British public's fickle opinion varied when in 1899 the second war unveiled the ruthless British policy in the Boer republics, when Emily Hobhouse showed the British public the truth behind the concentration camps in the Boer republics.

    • Word count: 1762
  4. How important was the Evangelical Movement to the success of the anti-slavery campaign in the years 1800 - 1833?

    Together they were instrumental in forming the Committee for the Abolition of the African Slave Trade in 1787. As part of the committee, Clarkson collected evidence and information about the slave trade to present to parliament and the public. He travelled around Britain, visiting the ports of Liverpool and Bristol, and gathered eyewitness accounts from sailors who had worked on slave ships. Clarkson also bought examples of equipment used on slave ships, including handcuffs, shackles and branding irons, which he used as powerful visual aids. Although he was absent from the movement for 9 years and his contribution wasn't very wide, what he did nevertheless helped the anti-slavery campaign enormously.

    • Word count: 1128
  5. Do you agree with the view, expressed in Source U, that the confrontation between the government and the suffrage campaigners was not 'wholly barren of results'? Do you agree with the view, expressed in Source U, that the confrontation between the governm

    They can both be seen as a great force of publicity and as an act of violence that the government could put down to madness. The WSPU, by taking extreme measures, were able to promote their cause through the media as it was far the most controversial and divisive aspect of the whole of female suffrage. Although it gained the cause huge publicity, and many argue that any publicity at all increased the campaign's progress, the use of violence seemed to justify the widely-held belief that women were not physically or mentally stable enough to be trusted with the vote.

    • Word count: 1193
  6. How far do you agree that Chamberlain's behaviour during the Czech crisis of September 1938 reveals that Chamberlain was not the dupe of Hitler but a shrewd politician

    The fact that sources 7 and 9 agree suggest that Chamberlain was shrewd, and not duped. Source 7 states that it was Chamberlains aim to postpone war temporarily, which was achieved. The quote from Ironside confirms that it was his aim 'Chamberlain is of course right. We have not the means of defending ourselves and he knows it'. Source 9 also agrees with this and says that 'aiming to postpone it to allow Britain to gather strength'. Chamberlain knew that war would be a disaster for Western Civilisation, and this view is reflected in Britain's foreign policy during this period, with the aims of preserving peace and balancing power in Europe.

    • Word count: 1022
  7. How has b****y Sunday shaped the views of the Republicans/Nationalists? How has Partition shaped the views of the Loyalists/Unionists?

    This purely just motivated the Catholics and gave them another point to argue for. With this favouritism in mind the Catholics also wanted Internment to be put to an end as they saw this as an easy way of getting rid of some of the Catholics and was very clearly unfair. b****y Sunday resulted in the views of Nationalists and the Republicans becoming much more extreme. This meant that a lot more of the Republicans resulted in fighting back with fire and getting violent against their enemies just as the British did.

    • Word count: 1492
  8. Using these passages, and your own knowledge, assess the view that the cause of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 was merely due to the greased cartridges affair

    Whereas, Niall Ferguson in Interpretation B indicates that the Christianising of India was the cause of the Indian Mutiny. However, in Interpretation C, Saul David states that it was an ever-growing inevitability of the Bengal army and princely families rebelling against British rule. Moreover, in interpretation D, T.O Lloyd again puts across the idea that the Christianisation of India and the introduction of pig and cow fat rifle cartridges was the prime cause of the Indian Rebellion. This essay will analyse and deduce whether the cause of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 was merely due to the greased cartridges affair or was the cause of another incident.

    • Word count: 1041
  9. Assessment of Henry VII's foreign policy.

    Over the years, Brittany had been a thorn in France's side as it tended to ally with England and France's other enemy burgundy. For Henry the situation was rather difficult because he had spent so much of his exile in Brittany and he did not wish to see the whole of the French coast across the channel from England fall into French hands. However, the powerlessness of Henry's position soon became clear. He made a commercial treaty with Brittany in 1496 and when Francis died in 1488, he signed the Treaty of Redon with the Breton government, promising military aid to defend the duchy from French incursions.

    • Word count: 1738
  10. Do you agree with the view that, by 1882 the concept of angel in the house had been overturned?

    This was passed partly due to Caroline Norton's efforts and her experiences influenced the clauses, which were inserted in to the Act. This Act meant that more and more women were failing to fit into the 'angel in the house' concept of creating a safe haven for her husband away from the harsh reality of the outside world. Even thought laws such as the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act were but in to place men still thought that they had power over their wives.

    • Word count: 1349
  11. To what extent did the aims and methods of the Irish Nationalists change between 1848 and 1890?

    O'Connell tried to achieve these aims through various methods all of which however were peaceful; he held mass open air meetings, he used the press to his advantage along with posters and was able to rally the masses with his great oratory ability. Young Ireland was one of the first Irish Nationalist groups to form that have influenced many of the other Irish Nationalist groups. To achieve their aims they used constitutional methods like O'Connell used. However later into O'Connell's life his political career began to waver by 1842 and his final years leading up to his death in 1847 were not as significant.

    • Word count: 1076
  12. Why Did Parliament Win The Civil War?

    Oliver Cromwell was known for his great tactics and well disciplined army whilst Rupert made hasty decisions without thinking them through and was by no means in full control of his own men. Throwing away a great chance of ending war in its early stages at the encounter at Edgehill, Rupert was in no way at the same standard as Cromwell. He had countless members of the rivals on the run; he pursued them instead of using his greater force to finish off the main battle.

    • Word count: 1068
  13. There were many factors behind Elizabeths decision to introduce the Church of England in 1558. These factors include the internal situation, the international situation and Elizabeths own personal beliefs.

    The state could never be in safety where there was toleration of two religions. For there is no enmity so great as that for religion, and they that differ in the service of god can never agree in the service of their country," as said by William Cecil, one of Elizabeth's chief advisors in 1580. This means that Elizabeth was fully aware of the impact that her decision would have and how important it was that she took England's internal situation into consideration.

    • Word count: 1608
  14. How and Why Did Pitt Stay in Power for so Long?

    But the King's support was just in his electoral management. The King also had great political influence due to the power of offering sinecures in return for support. Because of the King's support, the election result was a given. The Foxes were defeated, and Pitt triumphant with a majority of 31. Also during the future years, the King always had his royal support in the House of Lords support bills to make sure they passed this meant that Pitt had a comfortable majority all throughout his tenure.

    • Word count: 1466
  15. Henry VI's weakness as a King Directly Led to the outbreak of war in 1455.

    This essentially means that he made very little decision about the kingdom himself, which shows his weakness, that he relies on other to decide for him. Also considering that as of my knowledge right now, I know not of any battles he personally took part in or commanded, and got other to fight and organize the recruiting of armies for him, such as his wife Margaret of Anjou. This to me is his biggest weakness as it means he isn't deciding his own fate, but is relying on people who are suppose to be less powerful and blessed, do his dirty work.

    • Word count: 1647
  16. How far was British society changed by the experiences of the Second World War?

    There was a worry that this would lead to shortages of food supplies in the shops so the British government decided to introduce a system of rationing. Rationing made sure that people got an equal amount of food every week. People were given books called Ration Books, were every family was given the same amount for the week, some things that were rationed were meat, fish, jam, cheese, tea, cooking fat extra but something like bread wasn't until 1948, beer was watered down and clothes were also rationed .

    • Word count: 1099
  17. Assess the claim that the most important reason why Britain went to war in 1914 was to defend Belgian neutrality.

    Germany's construction of the fleet began in 1898 and escalated dramatically in 1906 with the unveiling of the new British battle ship the Dreadnought. It has been argued by certain historians that the terse relationship between Germany and Britain was of limited importance in contributing towards the outbreak of war. This was because 1912-14 the naval race slowed considerably and Germany and Britain managed to co-operate over the Balkans war 1912-13 and the construction of the Berlin-Baghdad railway. However, it is still apparent that both countries had been gearing themselves for war for some time and that the damage caused by the rivalry had.......

    • Word count: 1276
  18. Do you agree with the view that the Beatles were a driving force of a rebellion?

    So even four decades after their break-up, The Beatles' music continues to be popular. The Beatles have had more number one albums on the UK charts, and held down the top spot longer, than any other musical act. Many people agree with the idea that The Beatles stimulated a rebellion in the 1960's, The Beatles' influence on rock music and popular culture was and remains immense. Their commercial success started an almost immediate wave of changes, including a shift from US global dominance of rock and roll to UK acts, from soloists, to groups, to professional songwriters.

    • Word count: 1376
  19. To the physical force chartist the phrase The Northern Star was significant because it was the way that they could hear news from the view of the disadvantaged in society and communicate with their leader Fergus OConnor.

    The last thing that it meant to the physical force chartists it could mean to the moral force chartists also and that is standing up to the government by not paying stamp duty for their paper which was an extortionate amount of money. It showed the government that they were a force to be reckoned with. This also meant a lot to the moral force chartists. To them it meant the collapse of their strength of unity. William Lovett the moral force leader described it as a 'Destructive influence' and 'Destroying everything intellectual and moral in our movement'.

    • Word count: 1411
  20. Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, assess to what extent the Church Settlement of 1559 was determined by Elizabeth Is own religious and political views.

    Therefore the settlement consisted of mostly Protestant characteristics but not radical Protestantism as reflected by her refusal to give in to Puritan demands, and also with religious toleration so Catholics were not persecuted unless they presented a real threat. Elizabeth was made Supreme Governor of the Church rather than Head to pacify radicals who did not like a woman in such a position. She demanded obedience as she believed in the monarchy having divine right, so the clergy were required to take an oath supporting her role, with those who refused being replaced.

    • Word count: 1042
  21. Using all the sources, and your own knowledge, assess the extent to which Marys attempts to restore Roman Catholicism in England between 1553 and 1558 were successful.

    Source 3, a modern interpretation, backs this suggestion. It states that there was 'little enthusiasm for the overthrow of the Catholic Queen', implying that Protestantism was still not firmly established amongst the common people. Mary was quick to repeal the religious laws of Edward's reign and gave up her title of Supreme Head of the Church. The Pope became head of Church of England again, and Mary's cousin Cardinal Pole became the papal legate in England. He was given the task of restoring the old church, but eventually became one of the reasons why Mary could not fulfil her dream of completely returning the Church to Rome.

    • Word count: 1175

    In his first ministry, he believed in the concert of Europe, in the peaceful resolution of problems via arbitration. This was an issue which cost him public opinion, as many saw Gladstone' foreign policy as weak, especially concerning Russia and the Black Sea Clauses: The Times labelled his policies 'demoralising'. In his second ministry, however, Gladstone was much more prepared to defend British interests in Egypt, and then again in Afghanistan, sending troops to quash an uprising in the former and threatening force in the latter.

    • Word count: 1391
  23. To what extent were the Conservatives responsible for the for the Liberal revival in the years 1902-15?

    The stance that the Conservatives' own failings led to the Liberal revival appears to have much to commend it. Balfour's 1902 Education Act, while a considerable achievement in some ways, raised considerable anger amongst Nonconformists, as it meant that the local rates paid for in part by Nonconformists would be used to fund Anglican schools. This not only caused great controversy, playing a part in the 1906 Conservative defeat, but also united the Liberal Party, which had been split over many issues towards the latter stages of Gladstone's leadership.

    • Word count: 1547

    The maintenance of good trade relations was dependent on the diplomacy Gladstone exhibited (seen through his support of a 'concert of Europe'), another reason why his approach to foreign policy could be considered a success. Here, his policy of peace supports another of his aims: free trade. This was a crucial factor in the economic prosperity Britain enjoyed in the latter part of the 19th Century, and shows success for Gladstone as a result of his diplomatic approach to foreign policy.

    • Word count: 1174
  25. To what extent was the development of the Labour movement the most significant threat to the Liberal party (1886-1901)?

    Relatively low subscription fees also encouraged the working classes to join. For all these reasons, the working classes may have felt that this burgeoning labour movement would represent them in a better manner than the Liberal Party had in their time of dominance. Furthermore, the success of high-profile strikes like the 1888 Bryant & May match girls strike and the 1889 Gas Worker's Union strike gave confidence to other unskilled workers and this led to more unions, and showed the tangible effectiveness of this new militant unionism, showing its ability to displace the Liberal Party as the champion of the working classes.

    • Word count: 1379

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