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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics
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However, this didn't happen during Elizabeth I's reign and so clearly she remained in control and handled the situation skilfully in order to maintain stability as much as possible. Guy sums this up saying: 'Irrespective of Elizabeth's private faith, she maintained a vice-like grip on the Church of England and on the pace of change'. Elizabeth I was mainly concerned about Puritans more from a political than theological point of view because their disobedience was undermining her authority as Supreme Governor of the Church.
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'In His Domestic Policy Between 1515 and 1529 Wolsey Promised Much But Achieved Little' - How Far Do You Agree With This Statement?4 star(s)
He would then be brought his Cardinal's hat - a sign of power and status in political and religious terms - and would be escorted to Westminster Hall by noblemen and gentry. He struck fear in the hearts of many people, he had the power to control them; if they betrayed or opposed him, then he would have them killed. Wolsey was in the centre of Government, and could control, or at least have a major influence on, finance, administration and justice.
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The British Isles where pinpointed due to there vulnerability of attack by means of amphibious operations which the Scandinavians could mount particularly well. They were barbaric in their methods, and by 800 most of England were under Viking rule. 1066 marked the beginning of the Norman conquest of Britain. William, duke of Normandy triumphed at Hastings, and this resulted in the Norman control of Britain. The subsequent conquest of Britain was followed by the social reconstruction of Britain, which in turn brought about a transformation of the English language and the culture of England.
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Constitutional Nationalism succeeded in achieving its aims whereas revolutionary nationalism failed and cultural nationalism proved to be of little relevance
Also, after failing to secure French military support, Emmet was relying on the support of 19 counties around Ireland supporting his insurrection but according to Cronin, "the cautious and individualistic nature of the discontent in the country and due to the fact that there was no clear indication of success, the people failed to rise." Thus it would appear that Emmet failed in two of his major aims of securing French support or indeed popular support of the people. Also, Emmet's poor leadership in failing to give the Wexford men the signal and his subsequent abandonment of the rebellion led
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The problem here is that nobles felt that they should retain a certain degree of control over the king and this did not just result in conflicting nobles striving to monopolise their influence but also the disillusionment of regular councillors and ministers. He also created a new upper class made up of magnates who had the ability to marry into the royal family and would therefore hold the title of the blood royal which again caused regular nobles to find their influence resented.
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* In the north, John Doherty organised a TU for cotton spinners; strikes broke out in Manchester (1830) in protest to wage reductions. Miners sought to join Doherty's union. Tricolour flags seen on the Liverpool-Manchester railway. * Following rejection of a franchise bill in July 1831 there were riots in some parts of the country, e.g. Bristol. * The fall of Charles X of France; failed to listen to the demands of the people; had used heavy-handed rule and failed to recognise genuine electoral grievances. * Catholic emancipation had been successfully introduced. * Henry Brougham had won a well-publicised victory in the 1830 General Election (Yorkshire)
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Within the context of 1880-1980, to what extent did British actions accelerate British decolonisation in Africa?
It was more a case of the Empire having to take a "backseat" to far more pressing matters: imperialism, in effect, slipped through the cracks of government. The party was elected on the mandate of and closely focused upon British welfare; the African colonies were working and therefore the government's attention was deviated, however it was one of the actions directed at the metropole which accelerated independence for many colonies. The introduction of the Welfare State in 1948 led many Britons to consider the priority and indeed the importance of the Empire when compared to home-grown issues.
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The information in Wikipedia was written by volunteers that were not paid. The name Wikipedia was coined by Larry Sanger it is a portmanteau from wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick") and encyclopedia. The Wikipedia was launched in 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. The name Wikipedia was coined by Larry Sanger it is a portmanteau from wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites, from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning "quick")
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Assess the impact of the period from 1969-1982 on the IRA/Sinn Fein and their development into a significant political force in Northern Ireland
The Split over the treaty led to the Irish Civil War from 1922-3. Many of the opposing leaders had been close friends and comrades during the Irish War of Independence. The civil war split the IRA and this rift would continue to haunt Irish politics for many years to come. In the 1960's the IRA was further marginalised as it came under the influence of left wing thinkers. This caused a split between the factions of the IRA based in Dublin and Belfast.2 In 1969 the wounds of old were once stirred again when Northern Ireland was rocked by b****y sectarian rioting.
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An unmitigated disaster. How valid is this assessment of Oliver Cromwells experiment with the Major-Generals.
This element of security can be furthered, as sporting events such as 'Horse-races, c**k fighting... or any unlawful assemblies' (Instructions to the Major-Generals, 1655) Were shut down and banned as it was considered a threat to the regime, as they believed that due to the large number of people attending such sporting events, treason and rebellion may hatch and damage the state. This again shows the Major Generals to be a success and not an unmitigated disaster as they were trying to secure on of their main aims which was, security by putting a stop to such activities they believed were causing threats or problems to their regime.
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To what extent did the hunger strikes in Northern Ireland become the most successful tactic for the progression of Nationalist aims?
The religious differences became the main reason for such struggles. When Northern Ireland was left under the control of Britain, it became usual practice for the unwilling Catholics to be subject to prejudice and inequality when searching for jobs and housing. NICRA (Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association) was set up in 1967 as a peaceful organisation that would campaign for equality in Ireland. Their tactics usually consisted of marches, however when a march was announced by NICRA for the 5th October 1968, the Apprentice Boys Of Derry (the protestant fraternal organisation heavily opposed to NICRA)
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Illness forced him to retire in 1908. Joseph Chamberlain - The man who split two parties. - A leading figure on the radical wing of the Liberal Party until he broke away in 1886 because he opposed home rule for Ireland. - He then became a leading figure in the Liberal Unionists allied with the Conservative Party until he resigned from Balfour's government to campaign for protective tariffs and imperial preference. A. J. Balfour - Arthur J. Balfour was the nephew of Lord Salisbury. - Acted as leader of the Commons during his uncle's premiership and succeeded him as Conservative PM in 1902.
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In addition, in 1836 Disraeli wrote and published the pamphlet 'Vindication of the English Constitution (1835). In this pamphlet, Disraeli described the Whigs as a party, tried to monopolise the government by enslaving the monarchy during the 18th century. This evidence also leads to Ian St John's conclusion that Disraeli was always a 'Tory Radical' who believed that the Tory party was the true party since the Whigs pursued 'a selfish agenda in the interests of a narrow elite'2 .
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However there is scepticism about this argument as there is a lack of evidence. The changes in British Society was the first in the steps that led to pressure for change. A change in the population growth and growth of towns was mainly down to the industrial revolution which made the people flock from the countryside to the city. However this raised consequences such as it put huge strain on the towns it selves. Furthermore this created discontent amongst the people because major towns which were getting even bigger had no representation until the 1832 act.
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The broader concepts of 'the poor' and 'the working class' will thus be cited as a means of conveying the standard of living for the elderly within the title of the discussion. A conclusion will be sought once analysis has shown that concern for the aged is a relatively modern phenomenon, certainly in terms of the role of the state, which necessarily implies hardship for the elderly during the early modern industrial period. First, a definition of the term 'elderly' must be attempted.
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To what extent could the Liberal reforms of 1906-1914 be described as a radical attempt to alleviate poverty?
Together with lack of health care meant large numbers were living in extreme poverty. These conditions had prevailed throughout the 19 Century and there had been no concerted effort to tackle the issue. However, in the eight years before the First World War, the Liberal Government first under Henry Campbell-Bannerman and then Herbert Asquith embarked upon a sweeping programme of social and economic reform. New Liberalism advocated social reform, financed by higher taxation on the wealthy. Surveys concerning the poor by individuals such as Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree in York3 had revealed the extent of poverty and brought the problem to public attention.
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The Fourteenth Century was a time in which turmoil, such as famines and drastic climate change prevailed. However, although such turmoil made life difficult for the lower ranks, they had not produced a significant or sustained drop in the population, 5 as the Black Death of 1348 had. The population decline of this epidemic was unprecedented, with an estimated 47-48% 6 of the 5-6 million people living in England 7 being killed. Such a tragedy causing such a large number of deaths could not have happened without considerable dislocation to the country's economy and social structure; 8 and this was indeed the case in England after the Black Death.
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It is certain that the pre-war suffrage movement, especially that of the Suffragists, prepared the basis for votes for women. The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) was formed in 1887 under the leadership of Millicent Fawcett. They were the first group of women to argue for women to receive the vote. All suffrage movements before this were localised and so had no real impact on politicians. The NUWSS was made up of middle class women who campaigned in reaction to the further enfranchisement of men after the Second Reform Act of 1867, where skilled working class men gained the vote, yet all women were excluded.
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To understand whether Disraeli was committed to social reform, it is first required that we understand his background. As a Tory backbencher in the 1840's he had been extremely concerned with the "Condition of England" and had heavily supported the 10 hour movement and criticised the Poor Law. In his books, The Young England Trilogy, Disraeli outlined the evils of factory labour and recognised the two nations of rich and poor concluding that his target was "One Nation". One Nation Toryism stresses the threat of a divided society and urges the aristocracy to aid the lower classes. However despite this facade of social compassion, Paul Smith points out that Disraeli had opposed an Inspection of Mines Bill in order "to please his coal-owning friend Lord Londonderry"3.
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"England experienced fundamental changes in the Political and Social life of the Nation" To what extent is this a fair assessment of the nature of change in the period 1830-1848?
This in effect removed the issue of rotten and pocket boroughs2. While the affect of the reform itself was small it marked the beginning of change. It could also be argued that the Great Reform act made fundamental changes to the political system employed in Britain, as further changes were not made until 1867. Prior to 1835 local town governments tended to be run by corporations which essentially comprised of rich aristocrats with little interest in the welfare of the people living there, corruption was prominent in the majority of corporations with funds being misdirected by the aristocrats in charge.
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Compare the position of middle class and working class women between 1800 and 1914. How true is it to say that women's opportunities had not advanced significantly during this period?
They were largely not taken seriously as anything other than "property." Later, it is also stated that "obedience and propriety will obtain for them the protection of man;" such protection was imperative to a woman's existence at the time, when opportunities for a comfortable living outside of marriage were rare. In the view of historian R. Whitfield, "the conventional view of a family was that a wife's role was subordinate to her husband." The way in which a woman behaved was a key factor in her eligibility to marry in the eyes of society, and therefore a key factor in the expansion of her opportunities, rendering them highly limited.
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His first great achievements, according to Roberts, were his securing of the Marshall Plan and the OEEC using his enormous negotiating skills. Additionally, Roberts believes Bevin brought good international experience to the role of Foreign Secretary and a robust practical common sense not always found in professional diplomats. The record of Ernest Bevin as Britain's Foreign Secretary has been the subject of considerable debate amongst historians. Bevin faced a series of problems in international relations, arguably more complex than any Labour Foreign Secretary had ever faced before.
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The ongoing war in the Crimea was a current and pressing reminder to the Tsar and the nobility that Russia was falling discernibly behind its European rivals in terms of military efficiency and technological development, and in some ways held a mirror up to show Russia the weaknesses and failures in its current state. Added to this the fact that Russia, since 1848, had been the only European country to still employ a social stratification based on the policy of serfdom, it was clear that any progress Russia needed to make to modernise its economy and military was being hampered by the social immobility caused by serfdom.
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"Why are you so selfish?" I asked "Why can't you just do something useful?" He replied I was really fed up; I decided to curl up in a ball at the end of my sleeping bag. I was not about to talk to him I had already made it quite obvious that I did not particularly want to be up here after leaving Bob and John behind. The oldest in our group is Bob, he is forty five and he has got a monks hair cut. He insists that it is not bald but he wants it like that.
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The extent of the defects in the standing system were quite prominent. The seat distribution within Parliament was irregular before the 1832 Reform Act. The total of county seats came to 186 and the total of borough seats came to 447, the remaining 5 went to universities. This shows that there was much more representation available in boroughs than there was in counties. There were many problems with the standing system, the electorate qualifications meant that not many people had the right to vote; less than 5% of the population had the right and approximately 11% of men had the right to do so if they were over the age of 21.
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