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AS and A Level: British History: Monarchy & Politics

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How Successful Were the Religious Reforms of Somerset and Northumberland?

    4 star(s)

    Seymour quickly overcame many enemies on the council and assumed control of both council and control. He titled himself 'Lord Protector' during his two years in power, and rarely put the council into good use. During his time in power Somerset proved he was a soldier and not a politician and seemed to be far more concerned with himself than with King Edward. He was often seen as "singly ill-suited for the post" and "rude, harsh and arrogant". This shows that Somerset as a person was not so popular. Religious changes under Somerset moved in a more Protestant direction.

    • Word count: 1688
  2. Marked by a teacher

    How successful was Wolsey in his Domestic Administration 1515-29?

    4 star(s)

    Wolsey did not take this opportunity. This challenges whether Wolsey's plans for reform in the church were serious or not. Wolsey's initial plans for reform were mainly repetitions of previous constitutions. One of these was the 'Benedictine' constitution; Wolsey simply reproduced this document with slight alterations as one of his reform plans. The 'York Provinciale' was another of his reforms which again was a set of constitutions selected from canons of his predecessors. Wolsey's reform proposals were false and superficial, this view is supported by Guy. Who also thought that Wolsey used his reforms in the church as a smokescreen.

    • Word count: 2289
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Richard Arkwright.

    4 star(s)

    Richard Arkwright became very rich so his idea was clearly a good one because if there were a claim against the factory the manager would be responsible for sorting it out. You could also say that he did this so his factories would be more productive and efficient, and he would then gain more money. The mills would have helped local business because it says in Viscount Torrington's diary "given at year's end to such bakers, butchers etc, as shall have best supplied the market."

    • Word count: 937
  4. Marked by a teacher

    'In His Domestic Policy Between 1515 and 1529 Wolsey Promised Much But Achieved Little' - How Far Do You Agree With This Statement?

    4 star(s)

    He would then be brought his Cardinal's hat - a sign of power and status in political and religious terms - and would be escorted to Westminster Hall by noblemen and gentry. He struck fear in the hearts of many people, he had the power to control them; if they betrayed or opposed him, then he would have them killed. Wolsey was in the centre of Government, and could control, or at least have a major influence on, finance, administration and justice.

    • Word count: 3315
  5. Marked by a teacher

    'Wolsey's foreign policy reveals that he had no other aims than to exalt his master's power and his own glory' How far do you agree with this verdict?

    4 star(s)

    Henry VIII's attempts to emulate his warrior hero, Henry V, must surely have caused problems, if indeed peace was Wolsey's ultimate gain. Scarisbrick explains the discrepancy and argues that Wolsey's foreign policy 'was a peace policy, and for about fifteen years he struggled to make it work'. Peter Gwyn however considered that peace was not Wolsey's ultimate aim, neither was the papacy, but that his loyalty to the king drove his foreign policies, 3'Wolsey believed passionately that it was his duty to work for the greater glory of Henry VIII'.

    • Word count: 1591
  6. Marked by a teacher

    How successfully did Elizabeth I handle her finances?

    3 star(s)

    Elizabeth also participated in joint stock trading companies. This would help raise revenue by anything that was traded for a profit. An important figure that helped Elizabeth towards the end of her reign to make money was Francis Drake. Often described as a pirate, Drake on a few occasions was sent to Spain to attack ships and bring to England any sources of profit they might have. In 1592, the capture of the bullion ship Madre de Dois in the East Indies meant a return of �80,000.

    • Word count: 952
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the reasons for the decline in frequency of Tudor rebellions

    3 star(s)

    Henry VII took steps to try and eliminate dynastic threats by executing Suffolk and any surviving members of the de la Pole family. This worked to some extent as by the time Edward VI ascended the throne in 1537, there were no more rival claimants. Many people learned to live with their minor grievances and followed the changing attitudes of the ruling elite, more and more, arguments were resolved in courts which prevented the outbreak of uncontrolled rebellion. Also� it can be argued that a lack of foreign support in the latter Tudor years was a reason for the decline in rebellion frequency as numerous rebellions had counted upon foreign backing.

    • Word count: 1393
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Explain why free trade was an issue for the 1906 General Election. (12 marks)

    3 star(s)

    The small loaf represented the fact that food would be affordable (under the Liberals) and the big loaf was there to show that with tariffs, the core necessities would be unaffordable. The issue was that people just wanted cheaper food prices as it was high-priced - this is what brought attention to the "free trade" issue. In the long term - free trade would bring down the price of food as there were less restrictions.

    • Word count: 478
  9. Marked by a teacher

    How far do these sources agree that Wolsey's foreign policy was defensive?

    3 star(s)

    Source F disagrees with the statement as it provides the reader with several facts of Wolsey's policy implying that his policy was to satisfy Henry with enough chivalric duties such as battles. ''... he was internationally regarded as a figure of splendid chivalric kingship...'' This is weighted towards the fact that Wolsey's policy was more about advertising how powerful Henry VIII was, rather than making peace with other powerful countries such as France and Spain therefore, disagreeing with the statement made.

    • Word count: 825
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Do you agree with the view that in 1515-25 Henry VIII wholly surrendered power in government to Cardinal Wolsey?

    3 star(s)

    Wolsey constantly manipulated Henry so Wolsey could pass laws and policy for instance he attempted to bring greater justice to the English legal system. He controlled both of the country's legal systems and thus could always act within the law as he interpreted it, transferring cases from one court system to another as best suited his purposes, in complete defiance of past practises and existing conventions. This shows that Henry had given power to Wolsey throughout the years, even when he was next to no importance.

    • Word count: 754
  11. Marked by a teacher

    1832 reform act

    3 star(s)

    As well as understanding and knowing that popular pressure contributed to the passing of the Great Reform Act we can question and yet assess to what extent how effective it was to the passing of the Great Reform Act. Popular pressure was crucial to the passing of the Great Reform Act of 1832. The involvement of the aristocrats was a key to the cause of popular pressure. However even though the aristocrats (Tories) were involved they were against any sort of reform, and believed that if Britain reformed revolution would come after.

    • Word count: 642
  12. Marked by a teacher

    History of british race relations

    3 star(s)

    The British Isles where pinpointed due to there vulnerability of attack by means of amphibious operations which the Scandinavians could mount particularly well. They were barbaric in their methods, and by 800 most of England were under Viking rule. 1066 marked the beginning of the Norman conquest of Britain. William, duke of Normandy triumphed at Hastings, and this resulted in the Norman control of Britain. The subsequent conquest of Britain was followed by the social reconstruction of Britain, which in turn brought about a transformation of the English language and the culture of England.

    • Word count: 3276
  13. Marked by a teacher

    Achievements of the Attlee government and the birth of the welfare state

    3 star(s)

    Such critics argue that the British economy stagnated from 1945 to 1979, when it was 'saved' by Mrs. Thatcher. Critics on the left take a different view. They claim that Attlee was too cautious and too ready to compromise; that he missed the chance to really transform Britain, for example by failing to abolish private education and private medicine. The key aims of the Labour government in 1945 were to take industry into public ownership, to bring in universal State welfare provision, and to set up the NHS.

    • Word count: 1491
  14. Marked by a teacher

    'How far did the changes of the 1960s in Britain create a 'permissive society'?'

    3 star(s)

    Thus people were exercising their freedom, resulting in the Abortion Act creating a permissive society. Prior to the passing of the Divorce Reform Act in 1969, divorce was only granted with evidence that one party had committed adultery and statistics show that there were fewer than two divorces per 1000 married couples. The Divorce Reform Act allowed couples to divorce if they had lived apart for two years and both wanted it or if they had lived apart for five years and one partner wanted it.

    • Word count: 819
  15. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was Henry VII a successful monarch?

    3 star(s)

    He was a swift and decisive king who imprisoned and executed rebels such as de la pole - this was all done to neutralise opposition so that he could succeed in his reign. This worked with great success as by the end of his reign, there was no opposition to be heard of. Other than being b****y and ruthless, Henry also used diplomatic tactics to secure his throne. His treaty and trade treaties with France and within his own towns meant that alliances and security could be founded and built.

    • Word count: 1255
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Why was Richard Arkwright so important to the Industrial Revolution

    3 star(s)

    He used it to make the thread for the looms. At first it was powered by horses but this wasn't successful because the horses needed rest and feeding. So he needed a new form of power. Also this machine couldn't fit in the houses because it was so big. His machine was efficient and didn't need a skilled worker to operate it. Richard picked up ideas from different inventors of the time and quickly put a patent on his invention so nobody copied him. His patent was taken away because he was said to have borrowed all his ideas.

    • Word count: 744
  17. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that Henry VIII's wish for a male heir was the main reason for the break with Rome.

    3 star(s)

    But would this have been a good reason for the break with Rome? At this early stage it is probably not the main reason. Henry used an idea from Leviticus, that if a man should marry his dead brother's wife (Arthur) then he shall remain childless, even though this was note entirely true as Henry did have Mary. Also as Henry wished for this divorce so much (as he had already become infatuated with Anne Boelyn) it might have been for this reason that he created this new faith and appointed the new Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas Cranmer, 1533)

    • Word count: 1132
  18. Marked by a teacher

    Why did Disraeli pass the 1867 Second Reform Act?

    3 star(s)

    However, we know that this is not really the case as these riots were nothing in comparison to the riots in 1932 over the first Reform Act when the entire city of Birmingham was seized by protestors and rioters, this was merely given as a reason to help gain support of the MP's in Parliament in passing the Act. A similar reason that Disraeli presented to the Conservative Party for the need to Reform was a phrase that he coined Tory democracy, this he explained was the theory that the Conservatives should not resist social Reform but should in fact use it to gain the support of the newly enfranchised voters i.e.

    • Word count: 823
  19. Marked by a teacher

    How successful was Wolsey's domestic administration of England 1515-1529?

    3 star(s)

    His attitude to nobles can also be seen in the execution of the Duke of Buckingham in 1521. Wolsey aided Henry in his fear for over mighty subjects who may oppose the monarchy. By doing this Wolsey did manage to keep Henry's throne secure. Wolsey succeeded Warham and became Lord Chancellor in 1515. He ruled over two courts of law, the Court of Chancery and the Court of Star Chamber. The Court of Chancery was Wolsey's personal court and was based on equality. Unlike common law courts, the Chancery was prepared to recognize that a man owning his own land had legal rights.

    • Word count: 1787
  20. Marked by a teacher

    "Parliament was of little importance in the government of England" - How valid is this view in the years 1525 to 1566?

    3 star(s)

    Previously the clergy had owed allegiance only to the pope. By these acts Henry gained the power to appoint his own bishops; he used it to appoint one of Anne Boleyn's friends, Thomas Cranmer, as archbishop of Canterbury. The first session of seven occurred November to December 1529 dealt with the petitions to Henry for action against Cardinal Wolsey. A committee of peers, with two commons members, drew up a list of forty-four articles attacking Wolsey and his policies. The summoning of parliament was suggested as partly down to Henry's previous unsuccessful attempt with the divorce of Catherine and that parliament would be used against her.

    • Word count: 1916
  21. Marked by a teacher

    Why did the Liberals win the General Election of 1906?

    3 star(s)

    The methods used by British soldiers to break the Boer resistance upset many. Back home people were embarrassed and outraged that the British army also took three years to overcome a group of out-numbered and out-gunned farmers. Acts were passed by Arthur Balfour, which he thought he could benefit from. The Education Act was passed in 1902. Although it was an achievement reflecting well on Balfour, it caused a storm of protesters in some areas. Similar to the Education Act the Licensing Act was passed which itself backfired on Balfour.

    • Word count: 777
  22. Marked by a teacher

    How did Wolsey managed to stay in power for so long?

    3 star(s)

    This brought several successes for England; the first one was the Battle of the Spurs, this was where the English routed the French and they "spurred "sway, hence the name of the battle. Although this was more of a propagandist then a militaristic success, it allowed for a large amount of glory, at least domestically for Henry. As Henry's main aim in foreign policy was to make himself appear as the "young buccaneer of Europe" and England as a country to be feared and respected, this was certainly a good start.

    • Word count: 587
  23. Marked by a teacher

    Do you agree with the view that the 1832 reform act was a conservative measure with limited effects?

    Also it becomes clear to me from Source 4 and 5 that it was again a conservative measure with limited effect. Source 4 is from a Whig MP in a speech made to the house of commons a year prior to the reform act becoming law and it states that "I support this plan because it is our best security against a revolution". First of all from the location of the speech in the House of Commons i can deduce that Thomas Babington Macaulay was trying to convince others to vote for the bill.

    • Word count: 1341
  24. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was James I responsible for his financial problems?

    He then had to organize his coronation. James was in no mood to make this a cheap occasion. It was a once in lifetime celebration and it needed to be good. This cost him �20,000. He had inherited these 'problems' but made them more expensive by being extravagant and the fact he had over rated the English throne made him spend even more on them. Although Elizabeth was dead she was still having an effect on the things James had to do. She had starved the nobles of patronage and they did not want to go another monarchs reign without getting patronage.

    • Word count: 1397
  25. Marked by a teacher

    Why did Parliament win the English Civil War?

    Parliament also controlled London- the traditional centre of government, a big source of arms and very significantly a city with trained bands (trained armies). Parliament's other main geographical advantage was their control of most of the major ports including London and Hull, but also Plymouth, Bristol and several others. This, coupled with the allegiance of the navy to Parliament, meant that Parliament could more easily transport troops around the country (via the seas) and tax imports and exports. The contrasting methods by which the respective sides raised funds was highly significant also, even more so as the war went on.

    • Word count: 1032

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