Northern Ireland Coursework How Did the Catholics Grow To hate the Protestants? The present crisis in Northern Ireland has causes going back to the 1530's. This is when England turned Protestant whilst under the control of Henry VIII, because Ireland was all Catholic there was some worry that European powers would use it as a base to attack England, so Elizabeth seized Irish Catholic land and set up plantations of Protestants. The Catholics weren't at all happy about this so there was an Irish rebellion until the arrival of Oliver Cromwell the new English leader. Cromwell regained power and he taught Catholics a lesson by slaughtering the Catholic inhabitants of two towns, Drogheda and Wexford, then he took the Catholics land. When Catholic King James II became king in 1685, the Protestants began to fear that their land would be given back to Catholics, so in 1688 the Roman Catholic King James II was overthrown and William Of Orange, a Dutch-speaking Protestant who was married to James' daughter Mary became king at the request of Parliament. But James II sought refuge with his old ally, Louis XIV of France, who saw an opportunity to strike at William through Ireland. He provided French officers and arms for James, who returned to Ireland with the French officers. William also went to Ireland and the two armies met at the river Boyne, where they battled, this battle
The scope of this investigation is to discover the Rastafari movement mainly by considering the influence of Haile Selassie and Marcus Garvey, two of the main charaters in the development of the culture
Maximlian Ziegler, IB Candidate number: 000-495-022 Word count: 1700 Critical analysis of the origins and development of the RASTAFARI movement Section A: Plan of investigation The scope of this investigation is to discover the Rastafari movement mainly by considering the influence of Haile Selassie and Marcus Garvey, two of the main charaters in the development of the culture. In order to carry out the investigation primary and secondary sources will be consulted, and Haile Selassies' speech in front of the UN in 1963 as well as Marcus Garvey's "Declaration of Rights of Negro Peoples of the world" in 1920 will be compiled, and attached. The plan is to include in B sections on: . Rastafari - origin and meaning 2. Rastafari development on Jamaica 3. Reggae representing the idea of Rastafari Two important sources will be evaluated in C, the findings of the investigation will be analysed in D, and the conclusion will reached stated in E. Section B: Summary of evidence . Rastafari - origin and meaning The basic principle of the Rasta Theology is the devine lordship of Emperor Haile Selassie I (1892-1975). The belief contains that god is in every single person, but only Haille Selassie has manifested the attribute of devineness. "God is Jah, and Haile Selassie is
'The Five Year Plans brought glory to Stalin and misery to his people.' How valid is this judgement?
GCSE HISTORY COURSEWORK: 'The Five Year Plans brought glory to Stalin and misery to his people.' How valid is this judgement? ) There are many reasons why Stalin wanted to industrialise Russia so quickly. Stalin who came to power after Lenin was determined to make Russia a successful country by rapid industrialisation. Rather than borrowing money from other countries in order to help Russia, Stalin wanted Russia to do it on its own accord and let the Russian people earn what they got. It was the five-year plans that moved Russia towards becoming a stronger country than it was. Although it may just be seen as a glory hunting phase to make Russia an economic power, it was said by Stalin that, 'We are 50 to 100 years being the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in 10 years. Either we do it or we shall be crushed.' And Stalin was very right in saying this. Stalin embarked on these five-year plans because he did not want his home country to fail and fall to many of the Western countries and ideas that threatened it. He launched three Five Year Plans, the first ran from 1928 - 1932, the second ran from 1933 - 1937 and the third plan ran from 1938 till 1941. hotmail password: rupermaya For each Five Year Plan there was an emphasis on what had to be achieved. The first plan wanted to equip Russia industrially for the second and third plans. It's emphasis was on
THE PANCHAYAT SYSTEM AS AN EARLY FORM OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN TRINIDAD NATASHA SABRINA RAMNARINE Conflict is a natural element of the human psyche1. In every country, every religion, every culture and every society of the world, there is conflict. Human beings possess the ability to cause harm and create discord wherever they exist. However, they also have the ability to soothe offended parties, correct injustices and penalize the troublemakers. All civilizations have formulated diverse methods of conflict resolution by incorporating factors such as environment, religious and cultural beliefs, history and mode of ethics into their organizations. For instance, when the indigenous peoples of North America were faced with a problem, such as a shortage of food, the members of a tribe would gather around a fire and discuss it. They might offer prayers to their Gods or perform rituals. Such a meeting was called a 'powwow'. Most tribes chose a person of great experience or wisdom to be their leader. Some tribes had several leaders or chose different leaders for different problems.2 Another such system of dispute resolution devised by man is the Panchayat system. The Panchayat system has existed for almost two thousand years in India. It was reconstituted in Trinidad because of the introduction and subsequent settlement of the East Indian immigrants. This paper will attempt to
Introduction Jack the Ripper is the most notorious murderer of modern times, his name a worldwide symbol of terror. His crimes were macabre and, of course, unsolved. But the victims were comparatively few and the geographical extent of the killing field - extremely limited. Senior detectives on the case never agreed on the true total of the Ripper's victims. Estimates ranged from four to nine. Most modern experts agree that he claimed at least four victims - Mary Nichols, Annie Chapman, Catharine Eddowes and Mary Kelly. There are strong grounds, however, for adding two more; Martha Tabram and Elizabeth Stride, making a probable tally of five or six, all prostitutes, all slain in the late summer and autumn of 1888. Although these crimes are sometimes referred to as the 'Whitechapel Murders' only two of the six were actually committed in Whitechapel. Two were perpetrated in Spitalfields, one in St George's-in-the-East and one in the City. Nevertheless, all of the murder sites are within a single square mile in the East End of London. The Victorian East End was an area of low incomes, unemployment, homelessness and destitution. Such conditions inevitably spawned crime and prostitution. Streets like Dorset Street, Flower and Dean Street and Thrawl Street, at the heart of the murder district, were among the worst in the metropolis. These places were often noted by the police
History of Medicine Revision Prehistoric Medicine: . Mainly supernatural theories of Medicine although had an idea of simple treatment for EVERYDAY INJURIES[a] Supernatural Theories . Illnesses explained spiritually . Pointing bone[b]: if an enemy pointed the bone at you, you receive an illness. It would draw your spirit or give you a bad spirit. . Medicine Man: He was the doctor of the tribe. He would try to locate the pointing bone, or give treatment. . Examples of Supernatural Treatment: . Trephinning: a hole was cut into the persons skull while they are still alive to release the bad spirit . Charms: they used various charms to keep bad spirits away . Examples of Simple treatment for bruises etc: . Cuts and bruises were covered in animal fat and bound up with bark Egyptian Medicine: They had supernatural and natural theories of medicine unlike the Prehistoric who just had supernatural but had an idea of simple treatment for everyday illnesses. Supernatural: Thoth: he was an Egyptian God who they believed gave physicians the skill to cure Sekmet: he was an Egyptian God who was thought to cure and cause disease Examples of Supernatural Medicine: . They had spells and magic potions (i.e. Papyrus Berlin) . They also had charms to ward off evil spirits such as Tawaret[c], the goddess of childbirth Natural: . Doctors examined patients carefully (i.e.
History Coursework - What happened to the Romanov Family? Question 1. (a) The fact that the two sources, A and B convey similar accounts of the murder of the Romanov's does not necessarily mean that they are to be trusted as reliable sources. However it does imply that there is likely to be some truth in the content of the sources. The two sources agree in several ways, such as the idea that the tsar was shot in the Ipatiev house, along with the two servants, the maid and the family doctor, Dr Botkin. They also agree on the concept that all of the victims killed were shot dead. There are however, many different points and disagreements between the sources, which suggest that they are unreliable, despite the fact that they share similar content. The first clue that the sources may not be trustworthy is the fact that they are both relying on the account of the same person, Judge Sergeyev. Source A is taken from an American newspaper report, based on Sergeyev's findings, and source B is an account of a British reporter who heard his theory of how the Romanov's died. This means that should Sergeyev be incorrect or concealing the truth, then both sources would be useless, and so both sources are dependant on the honesty, and accuracy of Judge Sergeyev. Both sources use rather vague language when describing their accounts. This means that they can lead the reader into
To what extent did America roar in the 1920s? In the 1920s America was the land of golden opportunities. It has the reputation of being a glamorous decade where people lived in prosperity and happiness. Indeed, this period has often been described as the 'Roaring Twenties' and this name suggests a time of riotous fun, loud music and wild enjoyment when everyone was having fun. This essay will explore whether life in 1920s America really did 'roar' for everyone. America joined the First World War on the side of the Allies in 1917 and made the deciding contribution that bought about the defeat of Germany. They came out of the war as the world's leading economy and in 1926, the government announced that the standard of living in the USA was the highest it had ever been in the country's history. The 1920s was a decade of contrasts. On the one hand there was a booming economy which made cheap, mass-produced consumer goods available to people in a way that had never been seen before. It was the age of the car and mass-entertainment, which bought about major changes in the American way of life. Attitudes to women improved and people began to accept their wider role in American society. However, on the other hand, not far below this seemingly perfect surface lay poverty, racial conflicts and violence. The 1920s saw the introduction of prohibition and the rise of gangsters and gang
Who was the real Custer, and to what extent was he to blame for the defeat of the 7th Cavalry at the Battle of Little BigHorn?
Who was the real Custer, and to what extent was he to blame for the defeat of the 7th Cavalry at the Battle of Little BigHorn? There have been many arguments and variations to why the 7th cavalry were beaten at little bighorn on the 25th June 1876. I am to analyse these and Custer himself to conclude whether it was Custer's fault or whether defeat was out of his control. In 1876 the Us army dispatched three columns (1800 soldiers) to attack in a co-ordinated fashion. One of which, led by Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer, was the 7th cavalry. They all planned to attack Sioux and Cheyenne Indians who had gathered in Montana with the great warrior sitting bull to fight for the right of the land, not for ownership. The seventh cavalry consisted of about 225 soldiers. Due to early arrival, they attacked the camp housing 12,000 native Americans, without the help of the other 600 soldiers and many other reasons, the 7th cavalry were tragically defeated and, not a single soldier under Custer's command survived, even Custer himself did not live. So it is impossible to tell what exactly happened over that short period. "What happened to Custer and his men is not clear as there were no survivors from his force" this was from the public statement of the president (Ulysses S. Grant) shortly after the battle in June 1876. The source is quite clearly truthful because there are facts
What was the New Deal? The idea of a New Deal caught on with the American people. It became the label attached to a programme of government action that began as soon as Roosevelt took office in 1933. In his inaugural address Roosevelt said that he would 'wage a war against the emergency'. His main aim was to provide relief for victims of the Depression and to work towards economic recovery. He also believed that, if recovery was to last, then important areas of American life had to be reformed. The speed of government action surprised many people, especially the amount that was done in the first hundred days. Roosevelt believed in 'bold, persistent experimentation'. There was no overall plan and not everything worked. But the New Deal restored hope and reassured people that the government would take responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. Politically, the New Deal was extremely successful. Roosevelt was re-elected three times and the Democratic Party dominated American politics until 1948. Roosevelt used the powers of the presidency to the full, but he kept within the rules of the American constitution. As a result, the USA avoided a dictatorship like that in Germany where Hitler came to power at around the same time as Roosevelt. The main elements of the New Deal were delivered in two phases - the first hundred days of Roosevelt's presidency and in 1935. Legislation