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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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This was the case within many groups within Germany. The workers in Germany were becoming depoliticised and the propaganda didn?t really work in convincing workers that their best interests were supported by the DAF. Workers had many reasons to complain but they had few outlets in express their discontent and no independent organisation to press their case ? since the abolishment of trade unions. Nevertheless, workers found the means to express their dissatisfaction even under the conditions of the regime. The main weapon the workers deployed was to withdraw from their labour and demonstrate, even though this was very risky business.
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Use your own knowledge to assess how far the sources support the interpretation that the Nazis and the German Democratic Republic pursued the same aims towards youth and education. 70 marks
Both sources B and D disagree on the actual successfulness of the policies implemented. Source B, written during the n**i period, suggests that the n**i?s youth policies were in general successfully implemented with high levels of commitment and enjoyment shown by the members of these groups, as shown in the source by the quote, ?good and ambitious education in the Hitler youth? which suggests agreement that youth policy had been successfully implemented. However source D disagrees suggesting that there was rebellion to the education system, as shown in the source by the statement ?the majority of students demonstrate the effect of strong western influences?.
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Schact's Plan also worked on one of Hitler's goals; of autarky (German Self Sufficiency), by exploiting free labour - the Landhilfe was established this was agricultural version of the Reich Labour Service which encourage 16-24 year olds to work in the countryside. The New Plan was introduced to increase the industrialisation of Germany so intern agricultural measures were needed to help increase production from rural areas to fed the workers in urban areas, this also decreased German reliance on other countries by reducing the need for imports of food and other materials.
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Through his policy of ?blood and iron?, Bismarck swiftly set about securing Prussian dominance over the German states of Europe and asserting Prussia as a major power of Europe. Bismarck knew that in order for a new power to raise another must fall, and those that stand in the way must be eliminated. In this case Bismarck had his attention focused on Austria and France. Napoleon III would attempt to stop Prussia rising as it may pose a threat to French dominance in Europe, and Austria was competing for dominance over the German states of Europe.
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To what extent was the strength of the French army the main reason for Napoleons military success until 1808?
This meant that Napoleon could effectively win battles simply by overwhelming his opponents. The army inherited by Napoleon also had a democratised officer core, which meant the officers had earned their positions based on their talent and their ability to command, rather than their social standing. Having capable, competent and reliable officers in the army was undoubtedly very advantageous, as demonstrated at the battle of Jena-Auserstedt where General Davout was able to gain a decisive victory against the Prussian main army despite being outnumbered two to one. The development of divisions and corps in the internal organisation of the army and, furthermore, the development of weapons and tactics was integral to its success.
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Under Tsarist rule there was no parliament and only the aristocrats had any say on the way Russia was run. However to the Russian people it seemed as if Alexander had taken a backward step in modernizing the political and economic ways after his fathers? reforms prior to 1881. This encouraged an increasing number of revolutionary parties forming underground. The political uprisings came from many middle class people and as Russification occurred, a large number of ethnic groups began to rebel and revolt as well.
- Word count: 1997
The Goebbels designed ?Hitler over Germany? campaign, used the consequences of the economic depression to exploit the weaknesses of which democracy presented. At the time the Crash had led to 4.6 million Germans unemployed and the NSDAP used this as powerful propaganda appealing to the working class Germans for support, as the working classes were vulnerable to this type of propaganda. The n**i party re-assured the working class that if they were elected, they would being about a massive boost in overall national employment and aid those significantly who were unemployed, as the depression itself had led to lower overall welfare payments and higher taxation on all classes.
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How far were the difficulties in governing Russia likely to cause problems for the Tsarist government in the first decades of the twentieth century
leader like it appeared the Tsarist government was doing and so Russia was treated with a fusion of suspicion and awe by other world leaders. It was not that heavily involved in affairs of other countries, defeat in the Crimean war pushed Russians to make Russia into an industrialising country, although Slavophil?s and westerners views sometimes clashed this was something that they both agreed would help empower Russia except. in 1904 there was a war against Japan which after years of fighting was subsequently lost bringing great shame to the people of Russia especially when the Tsar ordered a seven month voyage to Manchuria and three out of the seven Russian Baltic ships were destroyed by Manc hurian ones.
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This system gave Stalin effective control over the entire economy, and thereby the Soviet people. The most effective means of increasing Stalin?s power was collectivisation. This involved the elimination of private ownership of agricultural land, and its replacement with a system of state-owned and collectively-owned farms. The peasants who worked on these farms were under the control of the Party, which in turn was under the control of Stalin. Inadvertently, collectivisation also gave Stalin the opportunity to eliminate large numbers of ?class enemies? ? the kulaks ? and to steel Party members to wholesale murder.
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To what extent was Stalins position within the party and his manipulation of the competing power blocks of 1924-29 responsible for the defeat of his rivals?
He was able to promote supporters within the party and remove opponents and even though most of his support was from people with barely any power within the party the amount of people who supported him was what was important. The majority of people that joined the Bolshevik Party through Lenin enrolment were largely uneducated about politics they owed their position in the party to Stalin and so were loyal to him. Stalin?s personality helped him to assess his rivals and recognise when he needed to change his tactics in order to rise to power and his manipulation of the power blocks successfully is evidence of this.
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"1905 Britain was building 4 large warships and Germany 2. In 1906 great Britain reduced to3 large warships and Germany increased to 3 in 1907 great Britain built 3 large warships and Germany built 3 in 1908 great Britain further reduced to 2 large warships and Germany further increased to 4." The British government further explained that they tried to reduce the naval rivalry but because of Germany not cooperating they were forced to take measures to ensure national security.
- Word count: 1829