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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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- Removelast 3 months
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How far was the rise in Italian nationalism as a political force the main reason for the failure of the Giolitti programme?
Giolitti?s attempt to ?absorb? the nationalists in 1911 was the Libyan war. The war was meant to raise national unity; however it caused an increase in support for the ANI and made their opposition to the liberal government stronger. The nationalists took credit for the war and denounced the liberals, blaming them for the loss of so many men during the fighting.
- Word count: 481
Although religious education remained optional as it was in the Weimar period, Nazism was taught in a religious was, often comparing Hitler to Jesus and a daily ?Heil Hitler? salute first thing in the morning. The second aim that the Nazis had was to change the whole curriculum. They wanted everything that children learnt to teach them loyalty to Hitler and to the Nazi regime. This meant a very strong positive view of German and a negative view on Germany?s enemies and society?s ?undesirables?.
- Word count: 1120
Mussolini created a loyal nation of fascists between 1926 and 1939. How far do you agree with this statement? (20 Marks)
Education for boys was to make them militaristic loyal fascists. They were trained in sport and fitness. Activities included wrestling, boxing, and bomb throwing, marching and shooting. Evidently to some extent this education was successful in making young men loyal to Mussolini and to Italy, many of the young soldiers were prepared to die for their country and stuck it out right until the end of the fascist reign. However, many of the young boys would?ve just enjoyed all of the outdoor activities and found it exciting, rather than having a feeling of loyalty and being brainwashed.
- Word count: 1326
The developments seen during 1928-1941 laid the foundations for future economic growth within Russia. By 1941, all farms in Russia were collectivised, which allowed enough food to be produced to feed the rapidly urbanising population. During this time, a generation of workers was trained, who following war could develop Russia?s industry further. Despite Germany?s scorched earth policy costing almost all of the progress made during the first two Five-Year Plans, the Fourth Five-Year Plan made Russia the fastest economy in the world.
- Word count: 622
Said trust was an important form of social control as it inspired the loyalty of ordinary Russians. This loyalty was manifested in the wider Terror from Below, as people at a local level followed Stalin?s example by rising up against their bosses. For example, in Yaroslavl, the managers of a rubber factory were put on trial by their workers and turned over to the NKVD after being found guilty. Overall, the Great Terror was certainly a significant form of social control, as Stalin?s example was mirrored by ordinary Russian?s who used it to find scapegoats for their own discontent.
- Word count: 914
Which factor had the greater impact on Louis XVI's deteriorating position between July of 1791 and August of 1792: the King's failure; or the outbreak of war?
However, at the outbreak of war, the consecutive defeats of the French army at the hands of the Austrians and Prussians caused these rumours concerning the "Austrian Party" to grow in popularity (and in truth: Marie had been informing the Austrian military of French plans). This almost directly impacted Louis, as his own wife (and to that extent he, himself) was accused of being a counter-revolutionary, leading to an increase in anti-monarchist sentiment amongst the majority pro-war sans-culottes, and a decrease in the King's standing.
- Word count: 552
Which factor had the greater impact on the authority of the French monarchy: the storming of the Bastille; or the October Days?
Since Necker's initial dismissal the then Estates-General assumed that they would be arrested. However after the storming of the Bastille, Louis was pressured by his loss of control, to accept the National Assembly's will. Louis XVI could not control either the Parisians nor the National Assembly, as the military was no longer at his command, and what was left of it was being preserved at the Champ de Mars. Louis had lost five of the six soldier companies which he had placed in Paris earlier in the month (July), to desertion, usually to join the sans-culottes in their demonstrations.
- Word count: 500
How important were the financial problems of the French Crown in bringing about the French Revolution in 1789?
The irony of this system was that these Estates held most of France?s money, while the peasantry and bourgeoisie paid the most, despite their financial disadvantage. This was important as it caused the Crown?s tax revenue to fall far from its potential, which was needed to resolve the other financial matters at hand. Another reason for the Crown?s falling short of its potential was the actual process of collecting taxes. Private bodies (usually the infamous ?Farmer?s General?) were hired by the Crown to collect the tax, with a pre-arranged minimum income.
- Word count: 1141
Which factor of the "ancien rgime" caused more discontent: political/social issues; or economic issues?
Louis’ wife, Marie Aintoinette, lived beyond her (and France’s) means, once spending 400,000 livres on a pair of bracelets. She was clearly out of touch with many people, who deemed her and her supporters traitors – believing them to be in fact supporting her homeland, Austria. Her consistent spending and France’s increasing budget was a significant factor of discontent during the “ancien régime”. Within the Church, many bishops held more than one diocese/bishopric. This meant that they earned large amounts of money from each diocese and was known as pluralism. Alongside absenteeism (obtaining income from a diocese, never visited by a bishop), pluralism made the Church appear to be more interested in monetary gain, than in the spiritual wellbeing of the French people, who were clearly very unhappy with such their bishops.
- Word count: 631
For instance, he could appoint and dismiss chancellors; the Reichstag did not elect them. Therefore, those who wished to join the government had to appeal to the Kaiser?s wishes, resulting in an unelected body being chosen by an unelected ruler because the Kaiser?s position was hereditary. This gave the Kaiser a lot of power to shape Germany, even though the Chancellors had legislative initiative, if they depended on the Kaiser then it was really his policies being introduced in the Reichstag. Following the Kaiser and Bismarck?s tense relationship, the Kaiser wished to pursue a period of ?personal rule?.
- Word count: 1459