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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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Why did the reforms introduced by Nicholas II after the 1905 Revolutions not prevent a revolution in Russia in February 1917?
Further, Nicholas II introduced the Fundamental Laws which confirmed his autocratic powers and put him above the Dumas. All laws that the Dumas wished to pass had to go through the Tsar and thus the power of the Dumas was severely limited as well. The Dumas became just a hollow shell as the Tsar exercised his power of veto excessively and dissolved Dumas at will. The Dumas were a farce with no real political power which angered the liberal and reformist parties in particular.
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The peasants, who had endured suffering under the Tsars for centuries, were increasingly afflicted by Stalin's fierce implementation of collectivization. The workers, who had continuously struggled for human rights, were to be excluded due to the procurement of industrialisation. The rights of the party members, many unfairly exterminated during the purges, were held in contempt mainly because their beliefs were contrary to Stalin's. Conversely, Soviet women were afforded new rights, such as legal abortion, allowing them a degree of equality in society comparable to anywhere in the rest of the contemporary world.
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These Corporations provided accident, unemployment and health insurance for workers. This gave the illusion of equality within the relationship between businessman and workers, and the ability to voice their collective opinion on their own concerns relative to their working conditions. However, the representatives were fascist and therefore the real aim of the corporate state was to appease industrialists and so the worker's didn't benefit really from the corporate state at all some would argue. Working standards were not raised to high priority and declined as wages were not raised and there had been no significant reforms relative to them.
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Petersburg and Moscow, as well as foreign cities with large Russian populations, particularly Paris and London. The main enemies they were commissioned to fight were communist, socialist and anarchist groups, as well as trade unions. For the most part they were tremendously successful, in that they managed to put infiltrators in place at every level of these groups, including a huge percentage of their leadership. Their reputation was even more fearsome, and they probably accomplished almost as much from the constant terror that their name and reputation caused across all of Europe as their actual actions.
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The causes of the February revolution encompass Russia's political, social, and economic situation. Politically, the people of Russia resented the dictatorship of Tsar Nicholas II. The losses that the Russians suffered during World War I further weakened Russia's view of Nicholas. Socially, the despotic tsarist regime had oppressed the peasant class for centuries. This caused unrest within the lower peasant class causing riots to break out. Economically, widespread inflation and famine in Russia contributed to the revolution. Ultimately, a combination of these three, coupled with the leadership of Lenin, led to the Revolution.
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At their first meeting, members of the Duma put forward a series of demands including the release of political prisoners, trade union rights and land reform. Nicholas rejected all these proposals and dissolved the Duma. He then took away the right to vote from almost all people & used the army to imprison and execute protestors. He refused to persuade factory owners to modernize their factories. Rise of the intelligentsia. A major factor for revolution was the intelligentsia, which in Russia gained greater influence than anywhere else.
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How far do you agree that a study of Russia in the period from 1855 to 1917 suggests that change was always imposed from above?
The tsarist regime repressed freedom of speech and press, freedom to form political parties, and generally most human rights. Its policies consisted of subordination of many ethnic minority groups and persecuting or exiling political opponents to Siberia. So therefore the Tsar had absolute power and was the only one able to make changes due to his support and Russia religious beliefs. Russia's backwardness contributed to changes in which were made however these changes were imposed from above to appease the people.
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Was it the continuation of the First World War the main reason for the overthrow of the Provisional government in the October revolution?
However the Bolsheviks did not join. This was another crucial factor in the overthrow of the Provisional government as if anything went wrong for example if the war went badly, those in the coalition would be held responsible by the people so they risked losing support. Furthermore seeing as the Bolsheviks were not part of it, they would look like the better group and probably gain support. Additionally, the provisional government/coalition decided to launch a summer offensive in the hope that it would restore some patriotism in the country and that they would gain support.
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To vote for Hitler was above all a rejection of the existing system. Is this a wholly satisfactory explanation of the dramatic increase in n**i electoral support during the years 1930-1933?
It had created a 25 point plan in which, for the good of the German people or to horror of the German people would actually be followed by Hitler in the years after his appointment as 'Fuhrer' of Germany. It was this structure and order that the n**i Party had that interested people. It, unlike almost all other parties in the Reichstag, was a party that appealed to many different classes within society and many different groups. Being called the National Socialist German Workers Party, it was a contradiction in meaning but it meant that it was naming vast sections of society within just the title.
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What appeals to the public, however, is a coarser type, a gross exaggeration of prominent features, a wilful distortion, resulting in ridicule or glorification. In England, which was not under the Napoleonic Empire's rule, caricatures did not meet with any difficulty, be they political or legal. Among British publishers, some of the most prominent were Humphrey, James Gillray's publisher, as well as Sidebotham, and Thomas Tegg, both of them being publishers of George Cruikshank.
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That August, the Austrians joined the war and together they defeated the French at the Battle of Leipzig.The Vienna Settlement which followed was greatly rewarding for both Austria and Prussia - the two most powerful German states and clear rivals for the control of any unified Germany. Prussia gained valuable territory within the Rhineland and consolidated it's dominance over northern Germany with it's population doubling to ten million. Austria's foreign minister Metternich exercied more influence than his Prussian counter-part and his extensive negotiations ensured Austria's loose control over the now thirty-nine German states.
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This emphasis on the irrational and illogical completely defied the Enlightenment views of order and the rational over human beings. Enlightened individuals, such as Voltaire, championed deism, a religious outlook built upon the Newtonian world-machine, which suggested the existence of a mechanic God who had created the universe. According to this world-machine, God had no direct involvement in the world he had created but allowed it to run according to its own natural laws. In contrast, Romantics rejected the idea of a deist God of the Enlightenment and rather believed that "anyone seeking God will find him anywhere" (Novalis).
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To what extent were the Jews assimilated into the economic, political and cultural life of Weimar Germany
As this was also the capital, it suggests too that anti-Semitism was not widespread at this point. During Weimar Germany, Jews dominated many industries, in particular -the Jews were at the front of the textile and clothing trade. The Jews owned 40 % of wholesale and retailing clothing, all of which were owned by Jewish businessmen. This shows that the Jews were very well assimilated into Weimar Germany, and even before anti-semitism gained mass widespread; even Germans were buying Jewish Products. However despite the view that Jews were well off, between 1923-1930 - The Jewish metal trade dropped from 71.7% to 57.3%.
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Likewise, due to Bismarck's taxation used to reorganize the military, regardless of Parliament's opposition, this enabled Prussia to hold a strong military force, competent to defeat future rival European powers. Economic prosperity allowed the Prussian military to be able to afford technological advances machines, such as the breech-loading needle gun and superior network of railroads. These economic factors that sparked Prussia's financial prosperity and military strength led all other German states, except Austria, to join Prussia's customs union and look up to Prussia as the key to bringing about German unification.
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This early action shaped the beginning of Maria Theresa's reign, delivering a resonating message to her people that she was certainly a different ruler, one who was strong-willed and decisive. Maria Theresa's reforms and policies would later reflect this same strong-willed and decisive character. It is exactly this decisiveness - marked early on by her love-locked marriage - that demonstrated that Maria Theresa could rule the Austrian Empire successfully.
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These leaflets were prominent up until about 1937, when the Gestapo control of the opposition increased. However, the communist party then started their opposition again in 1942, when it was clear that the German war effort was failing severely. It was also clear that the soviets were rapidly advancing on Germany, so the communists in Germany started to feel that they would be more likely to escape the punishment of the Gestapo and high ranking n**i and started to feel safer within their position in Germany.
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Use your own knowledge to assess how far the sources support the interpretation that the decision to implement the Final Solution arose mainly from a long-standing and widespread hatred of the Jews.
These upper-class jobs were to be reserved for the 'Aryan race', as Jews were forced out of high positions to be replaced by 'Aryan' Germans. This begins to prove that there was a strong feeling of hatred towards the Jews from the n**i's which they would aim to implement nationally. Source A states that the influence of the n**i's was not as 'widespread' as many had come to believe. SOPADE reports how many of the German population have been convinced that 'Jews start all bad things'.
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He realised that imperialism was a popular topic amongst the British public and began to target it to promote his party's appearance. He even gifted Queen Victoria the name of 'Empress of India' in 1875. This was a very popular move and this helped to give the public more understanding of how important India and imperialism was to Britain during this period, creating an atmosphere of 'jingoism' in Britain. A sense of patriotism was building in Britain from their reaction to the imperialist campaign.
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The extent of which each of these methods contributed to the consolidation n**i power differs. It is certain that propaganda was one of the main means of power consolidation in Germany, as historian Kershaw emphasises 'It was plain from the beginning that the regime would attach a high priority to the steering of opinion.' The Nazis needed propaganda in order to transmit its ideas and values to the entire population, this was crucial to make sure that there were no opposing ideas or views. The threat of violence was what kept those who did oppose the Nazis from declaring so openly.
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and through key successes like the solving of hyperinflation by re-inventing the Mark. Secondly, the new republic and the socialist politicians associated with the Versailles treaty were wrongly seen as traitors by some German people who felt they had been 'stabbed in the back' after the signing of the humiliating treaty. Some politicians, such as Walther Rathenau, were assassinated. The treaty of Versailles was considered hugely unfair by the germans and the severity of its terms were unexpected as many had been expecting a 'wilsonian' peace based around the fourteen points.
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By 1922 the n**i party had grown significantly. Although Hitler's oratorical skills were integral to this it was largely because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weaknesses of the Weimar regime became apparent. Hitler used these weaknesses to his advantage and the Munich Putsch was took place. However without the support from the police the Munich Putsch failed instantly. Hitler was arrested and tried for treason, however he was given a lenient sentence as the judges shared Hitler's anti-Communist opinions.
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Since they have such differences, there were difficult to find a way to standardize organization and administration. There was opposition among the German speaking regions. The German states reached no agreement on how they should be united. There was even a question that if all German speaking land should united into a nation. The Austrian opposed the plan since this may spread nationalism which may result in the collapse of her multi-national empire. Also, her non-German subjects were a barrier to the road to unification. Prussia and other smaller states did not agree the unity of Germany as the latter was afraid of the loss of powers.
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The reason why Russia initially went to war with Japan was because Russia had long sought an ice-free, year-round port on the Pacific and desired control in China, so therefore Russia could develop its navy, and also because the Russian authorities rejected the Japanese proposals for the settlement of the Korean question, in hope that Japan and its military will respond to it (i.e. Japan would go to war with Russia), although this plan worked, Russia's loss in the war had negative consequences on Russia and its people.
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Describe the main features of government and society within Italy that made revolution likely on the eve of the 1848 uprisings
With their extreme views and violent methods the Radicals wanted social reforms and fairer distribution of wealth. Their belief of political power lying with the people encouraged many to join secret societies, with also no thought of giving the vote to women or peasants. The nationalists desired clear geographical boundaries with the belief that people of the same race, language, culture and tradition should have an independent nation of their own. Many wanted a republic instead of a monarchy, and they were supported by the liberals and radicals.
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To what extent did victory or defeat in war in the period 1792-1918 depend on the quality of generalship?
The area of warfare that to the largest extent victory or defeat in war in the period 1792-1918 depended on was tactics. Despite changing radically over this period tactics was consistently the most important factor in the outcome of wars from 1792-1918. During the Napoleonic period the use of envelopment to encircle the enemy was crucial to determining victory in war. Envelopment relied on fitness and commitment from soldiers as marching long distances at fast paces was common and so could also be seen to link in with growing quality of soldiers.
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