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AS and A Level: Information Systems and Communication

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  1. Network Security

    Network security has become of the most important issues for these business organizations and aims at protecting the organizations' data and application software. http://www.secinf.net/info/policy/netsec1.html What is Network? A ``network'' has been defined as ``any set of interlinking lines resembling a net, a network of roads an interconnected system, a network of alliances.'' This definition suits our purpose well: a computer network is simply a system of interconnected computers and peripherals. Essentially there are three basic hardware components of a data communication network.

    • Word count: 4850
  2. How successful was the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 in meeting the needs of the poor in the years 1834-41

    However, by the 18th Century nearly over 15,000 Parishes were giving the money to the poor. From the late 18th Century, the system was unable to cope with the vastly increasing numbers of the poor. In 1975 The Speenhamland system adopted in the south was an attempt to deal with the problem, but sadly made the situation even worse. In 1975 the total money spent on relief to the poor by the 15,000 Parishes was �2 million; in 1830 it was not far short of �8 million, nearly 4 times as much.

    • Word count: 1247
  3. What is Homeostasis?

    Breathing is essential to life: it allows oxygen to be taken in and carbon dioxide to be given off. Processing food in order to obtain the energy needed for a wide range of activities is dependent on a continuous supply of oxygen to the cells. The respiratory system takes in oxygen and excretes carbon dioxide. Homeostasis allows the respiratory system to take in oxygen in many different situations where the breathing rate is irregular. Muscular activity requires a source of energy. When muscles are working aerobically, three main products are created: heat, carbon dioxide, and water. The heat produced by active muscles helps to maintain body temperature, so muscle is contributing to heat homeostasis.

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    as well as being an industrial catering institution, Karins catering is one such established company that has via its good quality sandwiches, and strong attention to health and hygiene developed (which will be discussed in detail later) a good name in the catering sector, that is continuously increasing. Karins' customers include British Airways, Pakistan International Airways, Britannia Airways and Easy Jet. These companies have an international standard, and consequently the investigation will allow a good study of how Karins achieves the high standards required to keep such companies in its clientele.

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    This "new (cybernetic) epistemology" has, however, "a common foundation in the writings of Gregory Bateson" (Searight & Openlander, 1987, p.52). Gregory Bateson introduced the interdisciplinary concept of cybernetics to the social sciences and applied it to the realm of systematic family therapy (Becvar & Becvar, 2000). Bateson described cybernetics as "the circular mechanism through which systems regulated themselves by feeding back information to the system" (Vorster, 2003, p.52). He found cybernetics to be an appropriate metaphor to make sense of his lifelong concern with epistemology.

    • Word count: 7908
  6. The learning system in most American schools is based on an environment structured to encourage the students to become actively involved in the learning process. Discuss

    The students are given more time on discussions and physical activities. Conversation is necessary to their type of learning. In Hong Kong, students have lessons in traditional class and follow instructions given by the teacher, Usually talking and moving around is forbidden, their focus is to prepare the students to sit for the pubic examinations. Therefore it makes us feel that teacher target to spoon fed the whole syllabus to students and students are to memorize textbooks for the exams.

    • Word count: 580
  7. Discuss The Importance Of Perception In Face To FaceCommunication Between Individuals

    Two examples of this are: Foreign Languages and Physical Disability. Overall without perception, we would all have the same views and ideas of the world and nobody would have individual experiences. The idea of perception explains how we all see different things when we look at ambiguous pictures like the one below: Without perception, these kinds of pictures would mean the same to everyone It is in this layering of interdependent social construction that this model picks up its name.

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  8. Various computing questions

    decision support system as the name suggest help and support managers to make effective ,right and timely decisions. These systems store and process data at a much higher and efficient speed and then represent the information in multiple forms which could be regular text , graphical representation, numerical etc which really enable managers to come up with timely and right decisions. As the decision makers could be different so can be the systems as some work individually while other work in teams there are differences in decision contexts, types, and makers.

    • Word count: 4824
  9. A Review of Intrapersonal Communication

    It is that communication which occurs within an individual. It involves the evaluating of and reacting to internal stimuli. These evaluative and reactive processes help human beings to cope with and understand ideas, events, objects, and experiences. For example, thinking is one form of intrapersonal communication. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intrapersonal_communication Intrapersonal Communication Is More Than just Talking to Oneself Intrapersonal communication is more than communication only with oneself. Intrapersonal communication is a level of communication not distinct by the number of people involved, the communicative functions fulfilled, or the means of communication used.

    • Word count: 1617
  10. Barriers to Effective Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between two or more people; this is something that we do all the time. It is important that nurses recognise that communication is the key to good holis...

    Any of these issues could control how well a person is able to communicate with you. Therefore, for the purpose of this piece of work, I have chosen to explore two barriers to communication, and illustrate key points. The first barrier I have chosen is hearing impairment and then I am going to go on and explore speech problems as the two are linked together. Hearing loss can be broken down into many different categories. For example, there are two main types of hearing loss, these are pre lingual deafness and post lingual deafness.

    • Word count: 2108
  11. Definition of communication

    We need to identify different patterns of communications and we need to draw conclusions about the most and the least effective patterns of communication, and report their evaluation to avoid misunderstanding. Communication breakdown happens when the recipient don't receive the meaning of the message or interpret the message as the different meaning from what sender tries to encode. Communication breakdown can be seen from absences of decoding from the recipient. Factors of communication breakdown: - Physical distraction : it happens when something bother the communication and lead recipient or sender from transferring the information.

    • Word count: 2291
  12. Discuss the types of control you and your friend would use and the control processes the two of you would implement as new owners of the firm.

    that are characterized by formal rules, standardized operation procedures, and routines. This type of control is best suited for the firm as control reduces human discretion and so saves time. Cybernetic control is best suited for large inventories as it can place orders when inventory reaches a specified level (Bartol et al 4th edition). It simply isn't possible for managers to carry out this process in a large inventory MANAGERIAL APPROACHES TO IMPLEMENTING CONTROLS Bureaucratic control approach Bureaucratic control is the use of written rules, policies, hierarchy of authority, standardization, etc., to standardize and control employee behavior.

    • Word count: 634
  13. Unit 1 business at Work How ICT is used within the Organisation

    Each workstation in this network can use the resources o any other workstation. Peer to Peer networks are very easy to use and set up as an expensive central server is not required. However the Peer to Peer network is difficult to administrate if there are too many people networked together and the system could slow down if the same facility is being used at the same time. Client/Server These networks involve the use one more powerful computer which is responsible for printing, maintenance of files and other peripherals connected to the network.

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  14. This essay will identify and discuss critically the range of barriers to effective interpersonal communications, with possible steps to address them.

    On the job training should be given about these issues to eliminate distress and embarrassment for all parties involved. Understanding and communicating with deaf people is hard to Achieve, it could involve use of Makaton or British sign language. This can be accessed through employers, local support groups and also colleges. It can give people a sense of belonging and involvement within the community that they live in, it can also break down the communication barrier and open a new world for the persons involved, people with learning difficulties, accents and disabilities, all need to be communicated with, this is achievable on any level.

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  15. Electoral Reform it

    It is a plurality system, and this way parties can campaign with a clear manifesto and will then have enough power to implement it if they get elected. With the first past the post system the constituents also is therefore able to vote within their constituency for the party they wish to see govern and following on from this, they expect their mp to represent the publics best interest. However first past the post does not give all voters an equal vote.

    • Word count: 1433
  16. Communication within organisations

    Formal communication has always been considered the "regular" system (or "channels") of communication within organizations. It is impersonal (station to station), official, and, in most cases, written. Purposes: The purposes of formal communication are to command, to instruct, and to finalize matters through the application of regulations. Advantages of formal communication: Proponents of formal communication argue that: * Because formal communication is official, it is more binding and thus more likely to be obeyed. * Formal communication saves time and effort that would otherwise be consumed in informal talks, in discussions, and perhaps in arguments.

    • Word count: 1644
  17. Under what conditions would it be appropriate to use a process costing system?

    Costing are accumulated by job-order costing system; how are cost accumulated in a process costing system? Under process costing, costs are accumulated by department, rather than by order, and assign these costs uniformly to all units that pass through the department during a period. 4. What two essential features characterize any processing department in a process costing system? The first feature is the activity performed in the processing department must be performed uniformly on all units passing through it.

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  18. Organisational Structure

    Also workers may not feel involved in the business and they may not feel motivated to work. The types of communication used in a Hierarchical structure The type of communication used is hierarchical will be more written communication. It will be written communication because the information will have a long way to go before it gets to the person. If it was verbal then when the message gets passed on it will change along the way. Any problems in communication and how I can solve it The problem with communication in hierarchical will be: communication will be slow, might not reach its destination and the information might change.

    • Word count: 1862
  19. A History of Apple's Operating Systems

    Apple has been around since 1976, and many accounts of its history have been told. If the story of Apple as a company is fascinating, so is the "technical" story of Apple's operating systems. This document discusses operating systems that Apple has created in the past, and many that it tried to create. Through this discussion, we will come across several technologies the confluence of which eventually led to Mac OS X. An important goal of the discussion is to better understand the reasons, and if possible, the rationale behind Mac OS X and its important components.

    • Word count: 551
  20. Managerial control

    In other words, Resistance to Control could be any form in which someone with lesser authority refuses to carry out orders giving him or her. Mr. Taylor in his words lays much emphasis on finding more efficient method for coordinating control. He disagrees with the principle that it is possible to control people by rewarding them with money in return for a better performance. And basically, the widespread of this concept is that the power should be insisted, leading likely to resistance.

    • Word count: 1457
  21. GSCE Geography Coursework

    The basis of my question will be answered by formulating data from a number of different sources. From this data, I will calculate, analyse and finally evaluate to find the answer to my question. Primary Data: I collected two different sources of primary data. I felt two was enough as they cover just about everything to do with my chosen question. I also could of taken photographs but I discarded this idea as I felt the visual image was unimportant, as you couldn't grasp how the tram has affected the current transport systems by just looking at a picture of the tram.

    • Word count: 3677
  22. Describing ICT Systems (Blockbuster Video)

    Brave New World addresses communism, through the use of production-line styled humanity; conditioning, and Bokanovsky's process. Blade Runner, on the other hand, focuses on the domination of capitalism and commerce, through the godlike depiction the Tyrell Corporation. Nature and the environment is one of the common elements of context behind the texts; in Blade Runner, this shown through the absence of anything truly natural, which is reflective of the 1980's sudden awareness of the damage done by humanity to the environment, and that nature was not an inexhaustible resource. In Brave New World, the concerns for the environment are also present, however, the concern is not for the ultimate destruction of the environment, rather, it shows

    • Word count: 1345
  23. Assess the view that the most important feature of an electoral system is proportionality.

    This is the most proportional system where votes are equal to the seats. There are many various forms of P.R, and the most commonly used one is called the P.R List system. This is used in all European countries except for the UK Ireland and France. Parties list there candidates in the order in which they want them to be elected. There are 2 variants of the list system, Closed List and Open List. In the closed list system is used in Israel and Spain. This system can be used in multi-member constituencies, but in Israel there is one constituency and 120 seats.

    • Word count: 850
  24. Why Study Human Computer Interaction?

    The main reason why mainly people study or are interested in HCI is because they want to increase the efficiency of their staff and hence, make more money. Another important factor is safety; some kinds of computer systems can affect safety issues if the design of HCI is not good enough. As HCI addresses needs for the computer to be widely accepted and used effectively they need to be well designed both for the need and the capabilities of people for whom they are intended.

    • Word count: 743
  25. Discuss the view that "We learn most about the meaning of nonverbal messages by studying them in relationship to verbal messages."

    Moods, feelings and emotions are conveyed because of these simple actions. For example if someone is shy, they are less likely to hold prolonged eye contact with someone but would rather look away from the person they are speaking to. Proxemics and paralanguage are also key to communication. Proxemics is the way in which a person presents his or her body to someone. If someone is pleased to see another person, they could open their arms to the person to greet them - a sort of "what you see is what you get" feature.

    • Word count: 1326

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