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AS and A Level: Information Systems and Communication

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  1. According to Weber, what makes bureaucracies efficient? Do you agree?

    discharged precisely, unambiguously, continuously and with as much speed as possible"1 Bureaucracy is formed because there is often a need for there to be professional management of the modern means of communication, and thus this is normally the 'pacemaker' of bureaucratisation. Public lands, roads, railroads, waterways and the telegraphy were essentially managed by in a public and collective way. The development of the public communication has been a condition of importance for bureaucratic administration, though it is not a decisive condition.

    • Word count: 2318
  2. Diffusion of Innovation

    Let's study a bit in detail to understand the concept of innovation and how it is diffused. Definition Diffusion of Innovation is "The process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system" [1] By innovation, it is understood that any idea or concept which has been introduced to the segment or the market is new. The next step we seek to do is to make sure that this innovation is spread through to the right segment targeted. Diffusion, the word it self talks about how any information or news or any thing is spread or passed on.

    • Word count: 3456
  3. The Egyptian Drilling Company.

    P. Moller is Denmark's largest corporation, with activities in shipping, industry and oil exploration and production. The drilling division, Maersk Contractors, is among the ten leading drilling contractors worldwide. The combined strengths of both parent companies have contributed to EDC's rise to become the leader within drilling for oil and gas. Basic figures 1976 2002 Acc. Investment USD 9,000,000 USD 503,037,000 Owner Equity USD 1,686,000 USD 69,654,000 Number of Rigs 1 39 Market Egypt Egypt-Saudi Arabia-Syria Rigs Distribution Egypt 1 Egypt 32 Syria 2 Saudi Arabia 5 Number of Employees 58 3195 Acc. Tax Paid 0 USD 26,043,000 Acc.

    • Word count: 1204
  4. Review articles that take a complex approach to new organisational structures and proposed several argumentations.

    The decision of such or such structure is then a very important choice because it will be source of competitive advantage. In order to better discuss these points, first a theoretical background of the studies will be presented. Secondly, an explanation of the method used will enable a better understanding of the goals and limits of the research. Then, a review of the past findings concerning the emergent structures of organisations will be provided. The network organisation will be defined, explaining the role of boundaries and hierarchies in the structure.

    • Word count: 5637
  5. Leader As Communicators

    I learned that in grade school," or "It's not really important in my job." Do not make that mistake. We use it, and need it, much more than we think. In today's business environment, communication is crucial in the following areas: Sales and marketing * Promotion and advertising. * Reception, information requests, prospect follow-up. * Price negotiation. * Customer presentations, sales, follow-up/feedback. * Consumer/market research. Service * Support and service for all products sold. Management * Internal communication of vision/mission and passion. * Team-building. * Interdepartmental cooperation. * Setting and negotiation of budgets and contracts.

    • Word count: 1820
  6. Performance Evaluation of an End-to-End Measurement Based Call Admission Control Method

    I had to extend the simulator with a new module to prepare it for the task. Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Technical Background 4 2.1. DiffServ 4 2.1.1. Expedited Forwarding 7 2.1.2. Assured Forwarding 7 2.2. Network Monitoring 8 2.2.1. Passive Monitoring 8 2.2.2. Active Monitoring 9 2.3. Application Scenario 9 2.4. Classification of Call Admission Control Methods 10 2.4.1. End-to-end Measurement Based Admission Controls 14 Example 1 for Active Probing CAC 15 Example 2 for Active Probing CAC 15 3.

    • Word count: 13519
  7. Computer Hacking is never acceptable. Discuss.

    Some do it for profit - and some of these are even legitimate" (Cheswick et al., p. 132). In other words, computer programming must be a hobby, something done for fun, not just of duty or for the money. According to The New Hacker's Dictionary on the Internet, a hacker can be defined as: 1. A person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities, as opposed to most users, who prefer to learn only the minimum necessary. 2. One who programs enthusiastically (even obsessively) or who enjoys programming rather than just theorizing about programming. 3. A person capable of appreciating hack value. 4. A person who is good at programming quickly.

    • Word count: 2564
  8. To what degree are electoral rules impartial and fair?

    The Supplementary Vote (SV) system also uses a preferential voting system however the voters are only given two preferences. The votes are reallocated from the candidates with the least amount of votes until one of the leading candidates has over 50% of the vote. The Additional Member System (AMS) is a two-vote system where one vote is taken for the constituency MP and the second vote is to decide on the top-up MP. The Closed Party List is where the list of MP's is closed and the electorate only vote for the political parties through preferential voting. In 1998 the Labour government asked Lord Jenkins to come up with another voting system that might be considered by the government as an alternative to the FPTP as part of an electoral reform program.

    • Word count: 1721
  9. Communication - or the lack of it - is a central theme in "Die Aussage" and "Popp und Mingel". Discuss!

    Contact has to be made with "K" and finally the author knows how to do it, "Gut, da habt ihr mich! " (p.71). The author attempts to communicate with "K" by banging on the prison wall with the top of a pencil, "und schlug mit dem Bleitstifende unter der Wolldecke an die Mauer [...]". He tries and tries to make contact with "K" but he does not understand. The desperate death-row prisoner was trying to make contact, using Morse code, to get the prisoner in the cell beside him to retract his statement.

    • Word count: 1941
  10. Personal effectiveness

    A powerful sense of personal identity can help individuals achieve their goals and shape their future.2 Both beliefs and values are important aspects of an individual's personal foundation and can express a sense of certainty.3 According to theorists, beliefs are powerful sources and are influenced by forces such as education, religion, culture and personal experiences. Beliefs can be divided into two categories, positive and negative. People hold beliefs, which can influence behaviour and performance. Negative beliefs can harm performance or limit an individual's ability to perform effectively.

    • Word count: 2324
  11. What is Non-verbal (NVC) Communication?

    This kind of analysis has theoretical implications for the nature of human communication and has practical implications in a number of fields. A sender is in a certain state, or possesses some information; this is encoded into a message that is then decoded by a receiver. The meaning of a non-verbal signal can be given in terms of how it is encoded or decoded. For example in Aaron Wolfgangs book he talks about a role-play experiment. Mehrabian (Wolfgang 1968 p141)

    • Word count: 2947
  12. Internal Communication

    2 It relies on the recipient "emptying" their mailbox on a regular basis 3 Hard copies of messages are not always made or kept I think that this would be used in the company I am investigating. This would be used to contact customers and co-workers. Network Networking is a term that is difficult to define. Although it means different things to different people, in general, networking can be thought of as two or more people working together to achieve individual and group goals that would be more difficult to obtain individually.

    • Word count: 1855
  13. Should the UK reform its main electoral system?

    It also creates a strong bond between and MP between his or her constituency, which Agnew also agrees with. The case can be argued in many ways and that is that there are too many disadvantages in our system in that, firstly, it penalises the 'third' or smaller parties. For example, in the 1992 General Elections, the Scottish Nationalist Party received 21.5% of the total votes in the UK but only got six seats in parliament. The system is also disproportionate, an example of this is can be shown in a study of the 2001 General Election.

    • Word count: 1489
  14. Computer Aided Learning (CAL): What are the issues?

    Most class lessons in language learning follow a pattern on the lines of: 1. Introduction - outline of lesson and indication of the points to be learned. 2. Presentation - presentation of the learning material. 3. Practice - firstly controlled practice with a teacher, then free practice without the leading of the teacher. 4. Summary - review of main points and pointer to next lesson. There are four main types of CALL: tutorial, drill, simulation/micro-world, tool. These, once again constitute a spectrum of possible systems. The first type, tutorial systems, are generally closed in their teaching and learning approach and tend to present and practice material.

    • Word count: 1331
  15. Communication within Businesses

    Eye Care Centre aims at the customers in the area of Rushey Mead because there is only one competitor in the area. Customers Boots have the money to contact a wide range of people such as sending offers to customers and also who have advantage cards. The Eye Care Centre lower profits and so money has to be spent wisely and so do not send out letters about being overdue there eye test but Boots send letters to inform customers if their eye check is due..

    • Word count: 1899
  16. "Communication is simply a matter of sending and receiving messages" Discuss the process of communication in light of this statement. You may wish to use models to illustrate your answers.

    Once it finds the target it shoots. However there is no room for feedback in this model. It is simply just a matter of sending and receiving messages while ignoring the response. This is the same for Laswell's model (1948). He said the process of communication could be described as Who, Says what, in which Channel, To Whom, with what Effect. The most important element is channel. The channel is important as it is the physical way in which the message has been sent and so can have a big influence on how the receiver portrays the message.

    • Word count: 814
  17. Energy Conversion (EC) Systems

    Benefits Advanced energy conversion technologies being developed by private industry and the U.S. Government will substantially increase the efficiency of coal and natural-gas fired power generation. Each step up in efficiency reduces the levels of fuel consumption and emissions per unit of power. Basic Concepts System: A system is an identifiable collection of matter whose behaviour is the subject of study. For identification, the system is enclosed by a system boundary, which may be purely imaginary or may coincide with a real boundary. The term closed system is sometimes used to emphasise that there is no flow of matter across the system boundary.

    • Word count: 5694
  18. Impact of ICT on Society - The advantages and disadvantages of teleworking.

    It is harder to control and monitor the workforce if they are not in the office with you. Although there are packages that can monitor every key the employer presses that day. Fewer offices and smaller offices means that the company should pay less rent. This would mean that the company would make more profit. Employees will probably not pay for the software and hardware needed for the teleworking system. If people do not work from the offices then the employers could recruit staff from anywhere in the world. You can send emails from around the world very quickly and it would also mean that the employers could get the best staff possible.

    • Word count: 1094
  19. A brief outlook on some of the various forms of Telecommunications and different advances in Telecommunication technologies.

    This commitment will provide 10's of millions of WAP browser-enabled products to consumers by the end of 2000. WAP allows carriers to strengthen their service offerings by providing subscribers with the information they want and need while on the move. Infrastructure vendors will deliver the supporting network equipment. Application developers and content providers delivering the value-added services are contributing to the WAP specification. Global Positioning Systems - Locating Your Enterprise in Time and Space Society has a tendency to take the best technologies and make them indispensable then almost invisible. GPS gives the world accurate time to nanoseconds and accurate position to meters without high-cost precision equipment The ultimate applications are difficult to predict.

    • Word count: 982
  20. Business Communications

    The advantages of these more traditional methods of communication are that they offer the personal touch to the customer. It is important that all functional areas with in a business communicate with each other. For example take a section of the NHS, The Paediatric Wing of the L& D Hospital. This includes four wards, which operate 24 hours a day 7 days a week. The employment structure is as follows: (see spider gram on following page). All of the departments must communicate amongst themselves and with each other in order that the paediatric wing runs efficiently and that patients receive the best possible care.

    • Word count: 911
  21. Development of an integrated community energy system - Study report.

    The hamlet of Tulita is a municipal corporation comprises of first Nation council members (elected in First Nation elections) and is represented in Yellowknife by Norman Yakeleya, MLA Sahtu. 1.1 Business Structure 1.2 Tulita Yamoria Community Secretariat Name: Mr. Danny Yakeleya Title: Chairman Mailing Address: Box # 155 City/Municipality: Tulita Province: NT Postal Code X0E 0K0 Phone: (867) 588 - 3116 Fax: (867) 588 - 3119 E-mail: [email protected] Project Contact: Name: Ms.Cheryl Best Title: Ex. Director Telephone: (867) 588 - 3116 Fax: (867)

    • Word count: 7587
  22. Lucent Technologies - case study.

    In 1925, AT&T and Western Electric engineering departments created Bell Labs, which had been combined in 1907. In February 1996, the systems and technology unit of AT&T renamed itself Lucent Technologies and initiated its separation with an initial public offering of stock issued in April 1996. The spin-off was completed in September 1996 when AT&T distributed its shares of Lucent to AT&T shareholders. "Lucent is a New York Stock Exchange stock. Lucent pays a dividend. Lucent is a leader in an increasingly important sector of the economy - telecommunications equipment. The only fly in the ointment is that Lucent is a relatively young company in its present form.

    • Word count: 1605
  23. Different Purposes for which an Organisation uses ICT.

    Companies can use this to send mail quickly to another part of the company or even a customer and get feedback quickly from anywhere in the world, this can be seen in customer service departments of organisations as this allows the customer to send an e-mail and gain the information needed quickly and also allows the company to help the customer or act on any problem promptly. Networking (computers linked with one another) within a company also plays a big role for communication, although this would only be for within the company and could be used on a global scale.

    • Word count: 925
  24. French pre-revolutionary Government - 'An archaic and corrupt society, with little sign of social and economic progress.'

    In most European countries the system of feudalism had died out in the Middle Ages. Although there were still clear boundaries between rich and poor, this no longer played a practical role in the political system. However in France the rigid system which dictated the social and economic standing of all the country's citizens, from the King to the poorest peasant, was still very prominent. The King was second only to God, while the clergy and nobles, many of them very wealthy, paid no taxes and the peasants lived in poverty serving the landlords and carrying the weight of the rest of France through the heavy taxes they were forced to pay.

    • Word count: 997
  25. Real Time System.

    The properties of a hard real-time system are: 1. no lateness is accepted under circumstances 2. useless results if late 3. catastrophic failure if deadline missed 4. cost of missing deadline is infinitely high Ex.: - flight control systems. - fly by wire control system of an aircraft - an automobile system that generates ignition timing must produce a spark at a certain precise instant, even if there are other tasks that the computer must carry out to avert disastrous results. 2. Soft real-time Systems where will still function correctly if deadlines are occasionally missed.

    • Word count: 1310

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