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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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One role source of role confusion is the 'maturity gap' that is, being at the same time biologically and sexually mature, but still not having adult social status. Erickson's, Coleman and Hendry (1990) and others argue, that puberty is one of the most important adjustments that adolescents have to make, and their changing body image is central to their overall self image. This may be more difficult transition for girls than for boys. Criticisms: 1) Erickson's theory has been criticised for being based on observations of to restrict a group (white middle class males).
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Learning. Throughout this paper I will explain classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation of modeling.
This is especially true for me. Ever since I can remember I have been afraid of lady bugs. My brother would chase me around with them and tell me they were going to hurt me if one landed on me. After being classically conditioned twelve years ago, I am still afraid of lady bugs. Generalization can also be applied to my fear of lady bugs. Whenever I hear a low buzzing noise I get nervous and want to move away from it as soon as possible.
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But in restrained eaters person also has a COGNITIVE lower than PHYSIOLOGICAL. Tested using Preload/taste test. Non-dieters eat until they're full; physiological. Dieters eat until cognitive reached; if high calorie preload disinhibits eating behaviour so eat until satiety. Ogden 'what the hell' Herman and Mack: 3 conditions: 1st group no preload, 2nd group 1 milkshake, 3rd group 2 milkshakes - 2 & 3 asked to rate quality of the milkshakes then all given 3 flvours of ice cream given 10 mins to rate taste, told eat as much as they want. All pps given questionnaire to assess degree of dieting.
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then lower showed patients with schizophrenia relapse higher than in homes with high expressed emotions. Characteristics of high expressed emotions include: hostility, criticism and over concern. Patients' recall maybe affected by their schizophrenia. Other studies are less supportive. Hall and Levin ('80) analysed data various previous studies no difference families with and without a schizophrenic verbal and non verbal communication were in agreement. Subsequent research: strong relation - blur relapse and living with high expressed emotions relatives. HOWEVER, co relational may just reflect consequences of living with a severely disturbed individual and may not have any casual significance.
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One such method of testing this is to castrate various animals. This always leads to a marked decrease in aggression. Furthermore, when testosterone is replaced by hormone therapy in the castrated animals, the aggression of the animal returns to its pre-castration level (Simpson, 2001). This seems to support a causation effect or at least a link between the two. A similar study on cockerels by Berhold found the same effect. More specifically, it seems that androgen stimulation in the early days after birth (up to ten days) causes changes in the neuronal system, which affects the level of aggression of a person through into adulthood.
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The Id is made of two components. Benson (1999, P51) describes the first, Libido, as 'the inborn energy we have that motivates us to survive.' The second component, Freud named Thanatos, and described as the death instinct, expressed through aggression towards self and others. Cardwell et al (1997) explain that the Id's discharge of energy and excitation without regard for consequence is known as primary process thinking. At around two years old the human mind recognises the need to be realistic and plan for the future, rather than surviving on primary instinct.
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A lot of research has been done to determine whether short-term memory works better in the morning or afternoon. In a study, 16-18-year-olds (sixth form students of Battersea park school) were administered to take part in a word test to assess their shor
They had tested the article (of researchers at the Harvard Medical School), which is called a key experiment. It was found that a Micro RNA and the accompanying messenger RNA exist at the contact point of synapses. What are Micro- and messenger RNA? It is a different form of the Ribonucleic acid. As a messenger RNA (mRNA), one is already more familiar with for a long time: It functions as a messenger, transports a message of the DNA - often, but not always from a gene - out of the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm. There the message is translated often, but not always into a protein.
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Miller (1965) argued that human short term memory has a span of approximately seven items, plus or minus two. Finally, long term memory is the permanent memory system which has a virtually unlimited capacity but takes longer to retrieve and to store (Baddeley, 1990). Evidence suggests that short-term memory is primarily phonological involving an articulatory loop of rehersal in working memory (Baddeley, 1990), whereas long term memory relies primarily on the semantic code (Baddeley, 1990). It is well known that there is both a primacy and a recency effects in short term memory. This means that there is an improved recall of words at both the start and at the end of the presentation list whereas there will be more information lost from the middle of the presentation.
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Operant conditioning involves learning through reinforcement and punishment. Systematic desensitisation to tackle phobias is based on an idea invented by Joseph Wolpe (1958). There are three main stages involved in this theory. The first stage involves teaching the client relaxation techniques. The second stage involves creating a fear hierarchy of scenarios which would cause the client anxiety, starting with the scenarios which would cause the least anxiety and working up to those which would cause the most anxiety.
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Godden and Baddeley ( 1975) set out to test learning and recall in two different environmental situations. The participants were deep see divers, and the experiment compared memory both an land and underwater in diving equipment. The experiment tool place by the side of a swimming pool (land) and under ten feet of water in the pool. There were four sets of experiments, including two controls, each using the task of learning a list of forty words and attempting to recall them. Recall was better when it took place in the same environment as learning, because physical cues aid retrieval.
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The psychologist must not withhold information or mislead participants and the ethics state intentional deception should be avoided. The participants should be fully debriefed at the end of the research so that they can complete their understanding of the nature of the research, and it must also be emphasised to the participants that they have the right to withdraw from the experiment at any time. All data obtained must be treated as confidential unless otherwise agreed in advance, and all studies based on observation must respect the privacy and psychological well-being of the participants.
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INTRODUCTION Having worked in a voluntary basis in the community and various groups, I believed it is imperative that this research project looked at the view of counselling from the clients perspective. Individuals may come to counselling by being referred, or identifying the need for help themselves. Often, situations such as bereavement, redundancy, bullying, harassment, mental health, family or relationship difficulties may have contributed to the decision. My intentions are to collate views on counselling and analyse the outcome, 50 questionnaires were distributed 42 were returned.
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Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall Introduction "Memory is the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past."1 Short-term memory is memory for instant events. STM lasts for a very short time disappear unless they are rehearsed. STM store has limited duration and limited capacity. Long-term memory is memory for events that have happened in the past. LTM store has potentially unlimited duration and capacity. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (Multi-store model)
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remember more than five digits as well as a few participants not being able to remember up to five digits in some cases. We had to identify a method to use to collect the data, between a field study and a questionnaire we finally settled on a questionnaire in the form of a stimulus sheet and participants had to be in pairs. This was felt to be the best method that would minimise any variables which might affect the result of the experiment. The extraneous variables identified were distractions from other participants and noise from other students in the building.
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Jean Piaget - Piaget's Cognitive developmental theory There are four stages of development. Stage 1 - Sensori-Motor Stage - Between 0-2 years - * This is when the child develops through the use of automatic reflexes and develops into purposeful actions. * Most of the information comes in through their senses. * During this stage the child lacks object permanence * It only starts to develop at 9 months - Separation anxiety. * At this stage, the child is egocentric * Piaget mentions 6 stages within this stage where as they develop their thinking becomes more and more complex.
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The next stage, short-term memory, is memory that has passed from sensory memory, into short-term memory and can be retained long enough for it to be used, such as remembering a telephone number long enough to dial it or write it down. The third and final stage is long-term memory. This provides lasting retention of memories and is generally brought about due to repetition of short-term memories. Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) investigated how a distracter affected the recency effect. They asked participants to count backwards for ten seconds between the end of list presentation and start of recall.
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-Age-matched with group 1 + 2. -Mean IQ = 103. -All attending a referral centre in London. (Sampling method) Method and Design: * QUASI EXPERIMENT - I.V. occurs naturally without the need for manipulation by experimenter. * Repeated measures in different order to overcome order effect. Conditions: * Autistic/Asperger's * Normal * Tourette's I.V./D.V. * I.V. - Type of people -Gender in the normal group * D.V. - Able to correctly identify emotion. Procedure: Each was presented in random order to overcome order affect. Ppts tested individually in a quiet room in their house, lab at uni or researcher's clinic.
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As illustrated by Spoors et al. (2007), the use of Mental Images have proved to be valuable when learning a new language. The French word 'poubelle' can be translated into English as bin. In order to remember this, a mental image was formed which linked the two words. For this word the person, could imagine themselves holding their nose, whilst taking the lid of a bell shaped bin. This is known as the Key Word Technique. An experiment conducted in 1975 by Raugh and Atkinson, the developers of the key word technique, highlights the positive use of mental imagery when learning a new language.
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Research has also proven that a young child and teens brains are more sensitive to stress then an adult would be. Figures show that a child or teens brain is 5-10 times more sensitive to stress than an adult brain would be to stress. What seems like mild to moderate stress for an adult may be very severe stress for a child. This stress-related brain damage can greatly increase risk for many types of mental illness later in life. Looking deeper into the causes of schizophrenia, it is safe to say that genes do play a part in the illness.
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This is a good indication that repression exists. Another explanation for this could be that the abuse victims were so young when it happened that they simply forgot, or the victims could just be unwilling to talk about what happened. This experiment used a very biased sample - participants were women of which most of them were poor and lived in urban places, so there could be another reason for poor recall instead of repression. Other studies also support the theory of repression.
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This theory states that the depth of processing of an item has a big effect on its memorability, e.g. how well you remember the item. They said that when items are deeply or semantically processed, it means you can remember the item for longer, more elaborately and the memory is stronger. This is compared to phonemic and shallow processing where the memory is not as strong. The assumption of this is that in deep processing, the meaning of the word gets processed too, and this therefore leads to a better long-term memory of it.
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Obedience is a deeply ingrained behaviour for many people, where the impulse to obey can override any moral or ethical beliefs. Milgram believed that obedience comes easily to us all, and is the dispositional cement that binds us to systems of authority. In an experimental situation, he aimed to investigate people's willingness to follow destructive orders and find out if ordinary American people would obey unjust orders to inflict pain on another. He wanted to investigate the 'Germans are different' hypothesis, related to the idea that Nazis had a personality defect. 40 male volunteers were recruited via a newspaper advertisement.
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Each stage is typified by the kind of schemas a child a child has within that stage. The intellectual understanding attained at each stage builds upon that of the previous stage, and the stages are therefore passed through in sequence. Development remains continuous and fluid through all the stages however, rather than jumping from one stage to the next. The first stage is called the sensorimotor stage. This stage occupies approximately the first two years of the child's life. It is characterised by the child's hands-on approach to discovering the world around it. The child learns by hearing, seeing, smelling (sensory)
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This links to my experiment because using the technique chunking on an organised and disorganised list of words, led to an improvement in the number of trigrams recalled in the organised condition rather than the disorganised condition. In the organized list around 21 individual letters were recalled, compared to only 9 in the disorganized list. This supports Chase and Simons view that chunking can lead to better recall. My experiment was based on a previous study by Bowers in 1969; the results produced are similar to those obtained by Bowers.
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Participants were asked to complete the Stroop Test (set up on PowerPoint) and the time taken to correctly complete it was recorded. Findings The significance level used for this study was p?0.025 as the study used a directional hypothesis. The Critical Value was 45 and the Observed Value is 63.5, thus meaning that the difference between the males and females was not significant. Conclusion As the difference was not significant, the null hypothesis that "there will not be a significant difference between the time taken to complete the Stroop test by female participants and the time taken to complete the Stroop test by male participants" was accepted.
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