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University Degree: International Politics
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Instead 'its real target was those liberals who thought they could build a new international system after 1919 without changing the basis of world politics.'3 However, within his works, amongst his perceptions a different argument becomes apparent. For example, Carr was against the idea of going to war, and advised on the issue of appeasement. This could be taken as a rather romanticised view of Hitler's foreign policy. His view that negotiation was perhaps the best option for Britain to take is a little na�ve in the sense that he actually not only believed it could be achieved, but also that it would be effective.
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"The American President is a powerful figure in international politics but often appears weak in domestic politics" Discuss
These, along with other sanctions and embargo's placed on other 'rogue' states such as Iran, Libya and North Korea show just how effective US foreign policy can be in the international community. The US President is also seen by many to be the unofficial spokesperson of the western world, and it is usually his speeches, often on behalf of other NATO members which carry most authority with whomever the address is aimed at. Although arguably the President's role as a NATO spokesperson has significantly reduced following the end of the cold war and the lack of a Soviet aggressor, it
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Critically assess the extent to which the German Republikaner have embraced r****m since unification
It should be noted that in Darwin's work, all races are of one species. Nevertheless, this crude form of scientific r****m was to be the cornerstone of Hitler's n**i state, as it is with the Republikaner's policies today. Before we examine the Republikaner, we must first address the situation with immigration in Germany today. Since 1890 Germany has had an influx of immigrants and foreign workers. The Poles, for example were welcomed to Germany during the industrial revolution. Germany has always had a need for new labour, and with the closing down of the borders with Eastern Europe in the 1960s, this need led to an influx of Southern Europeans and Turks.
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Britain has always supported the looser form of integration and particularly in recent times France supported the federalist vision. The other big power of the Union, Germany, is somehow between these two forms and adopts a moderate position. When we apply this general perspective to the Turkish case it is very predictable that federalists have much more hesitation than the other side about Turkish membership. Beyond these theoretical arguments, it would be more productive and reasonable to argue the Turkish case within an actual analysis of advantages and disadvantages of Turkish membership. There are political and economic requirements of EU that expected to be met by applicant states.
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Political scientists have become increasingly interested in global politics and are searching for a greater understanding of international relations and theories that help explain them.
This is how realists explain international relations. As the realist Hans J. Morgenthau puts it 'Whatever the ultimate aims of international politics, power is always the immediate aim.'3 While different strains of realism puts different emphasises the importance of the nation-state, all realists believe that the states are the most important actor in world politics. This is because self-interest humans are encouraged to form states with artificial boundaries to protect themselves against others and promote their own interests. While it is impossible to stop them competing with each other, a powerful agent (a King, government or union)
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While Dutch power declined, German power increased; the Weimar Republic that was founded in 1871 turned the little states into a powerful country. Maarten Rigter in his article Dutch-German Relations from the Dutch perspective says that "Germany became 'big brother' and from then on the Dutch were often considered as 'Niederdeutsche' (Germans of the low lands)" (Rigter 1). At that time, the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck even declared in the parliament "The Dutch will voluntarily join our state" (Rigter 1).
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Nation states will still remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. Huntington states: The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. Huntington suggests that the old groupings of the Cold War are no longer relevant (i.e.: categorizing the world by economic muscles First, Second and Third Worlds). He proposes a new grouping of countries, not in terms of their political or economic systems or in terms of their level of economic development but rather in terms of their culture and civilization.
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These issues in particular will be analysed to show that this horrific event could have been avoided. The years prior to conflict in 1914 represented a move from all the major states in Europe towards a firm commitment to arbitration and diplomacy. "For all the obvious dangers of militarism and colonial rivalry, the formal willingness of states to accept some restraints on their behalf was probably greater than in the whole history of modern Europe"1. There had not been a major war in Europe for over thirty years, quite an achievement given that the continent had been at war almost continuously for some time.
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The powers granted to the presidency fall under two categories: the head of state and the head or government or foreign and domestic. Each to these categories is divided into three parts each.
The president doesn't hold all power concerned with military because in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution, seven powers are devoted to the aspects of control that Congress has over the military. Presidents in the past have tried step over or mislead Congress. President Johnson mislead Congress in the Vietnam war and they retaliated by passing the War Powers Resolution in 1973. This resolution allowed the president to send troops abroad only when Congress gave authorization or when troops that were already abroad were under attack or seriously threatened.
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Location has helped shape these agreements; a prime example is that of the European Union. Initially what was primarily an economic agreement has grown to become a political, social and security union1. There are obvious economic and political benefits as a result. Countries involved with the EU all benefit from better representation on a global scale as well as an opportunity to facilitate trade with other EU members. However, the EU does require members to follow certain rules and regulations on social, political and economical standards. This does occasionally cause uneasiness among member sates as they feel Europe could be more democratic.
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In the current balance of power, America is undeniably the hegemon. And, I feel that it is a safe assumption that the political theory governing America would, at the least, permeate the governments of many comparable nations. Although it is not always true that the great actors will all agree on a political agenda, it is usually the case that they share a homogeny of ideals. It is these ideals that I feel have been changing since the election of the new American president.
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hence this basis cannot be transported to an international plateau which is absent of society. Feminists believe that world politics possesses 'multiple realities' (True 2001:254) and by associating morality with the cynicism of realism, the 'divisions between the individual, state and international system' will be rendered less striking. Not only does realism wrongly describe the way in which world politics is conducted, but it is also guilty of the 'reproduction of global hierarchies of gender and other social identities' (True 2001:233).
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Define and evaluate the contribution of the dependency school to our understanding on international economic relations.
It does not theorise the role of the state, but depoliticises it and making the state an agency manipulated by capitalism. Having emerged from the development economics studies of the 1960's, dependency theory simultaneously links underdevelopment and capitalist exploitation to trade and monetary relations, and the role of corporate actors and economic institutions. Thus IPE is never seen independently from capitalist expropriation, and poverty and underdevelopment. It is itself a theory of underdevelopment justified by mercantilist expropriation of the poorer periphery.
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It is now a custom to expect the President to have a say about everything. These expectations have lead to the increase in the executive branch and, according to Neustadt, the weakness of the presidency. Although there is no guarantee that the president is the leader in fact, increasing the clerkly tasks of the president does guarantee that the President has some say in a variety of issues at hand. A far reaching executive branch is much better that a confined one.
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Discuss the intergovernmental argument that in an ever-closer European Union, member states would lose sovereignty.
As an architect of decision, the Council of Ministers is regarded by some authors as "arguably the most powerful of the EU institutions," (McCormick, 2002, 95). However, I do not comprehend this to be true, due to there being no pooling of national sovereignty. The Council is responsible for the amendment of legislation with the European Parliament, and can approve or reject legislation. It is the body widely regarded as the "primary champion of national interests," (McCormick, 2002, 95). Following the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987, the ability of countries to use their veto has been diluted, with the further utilisation of Qualified Majority Voting.
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Discuss the point that the problems that the Treaty of Versailles tried to deal with were near impossible to solve.
It must be asked then, if every continent was engaged why was it left up to the states of Italy, Britain, France and the United States to control this treaty which was to affect the future of Europe, change the political situation of the world and arguably lead to another world war years later? Having looked at that however, it must be noted that all wars previous to this were on a far smaller scale, I.E the main previous loss being Napoleon leading a then unparalleled half a million men to their death in Russia, and that most previous wars in the 20th Century involved armies of two hundred thousand at most.
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The major difference now was that these states were no longer the responsibility of the nations which had once ruled them therefore they now had to bribe them for their help for example with the implementation of low taxes, consequently in mainy ways they were no better off than they had been before decolonisation. `So although the majority of Third World countries have gained independence from the developed world since 1945,the political and economic interests of developed countries are still deeply entrenched in the Third World through the operation of commerce, trade, capital investment and foreign aid programmes.
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Yeats opens the poem with a reference to "the Great Comedian," Daniel O'Connell, an Irish political leader. Though seemingly appropriate, the reference seems almost out of place, however - O'Connell was opposed to insurrection and the Irish fighting for freedom from the British, a cause Parnell supported. In the third stanza Yeats brings up the deaths of three famous Irish nationalists. Each died from a public-ordered execution or actions taken to avoid it. Yeats also comments on the up rise of individuals who objected to Parnell's relationship with Katherine O'Shea. This "hysterica passio" was the cause of his political decline.
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By 1984 the Jan Sangh was renamed the Bharatiya Party but was still unable to succeed in the political party system in India and it wasn't until the fall of the Janata government in 1991 that the BJP emerged as a viable alternative. The authour claims that the BJP was successful based on a number of factors including leadership based on opposition to Congress, party discipline, systematic election campaigns, well spoken leaders, grassroots support, middle-class appeal and a patriotic and nationalist approach.
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And the only legitimate exception to the general ban of 'force' is the right of self-defense in article 51 of the UN charter. Conventionally, Humanitarian intervention is defined in terms of intervention motivated by humanitarian considerations, but what counts as humanitarian is an important question. Parekh said 'Our conception of humanitarianism is culturally specific and has its own biases'. The international committee of the red cross defines humanitarian acts as those that prevent and alleviate human suffering' - with the emphasis on a non-political and impartial definition of humanitarianism where all human beings irrespective of race, nationality or s*x are included.
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However realism as a theory has become increasingly associated with the North American realism of Hans Morgenthau, established during the tense cold war period. Yet realism is more dynamic and varied than is often realised. Therefore, when assessing Carr's credentials as a realist, it must be remembered that realism is open to interpretation. Thus we will take realism as an approach to political practice:2 distinct in its fundamental meaning yet flexible in its interpretation. Part of the reason Carr is viewed as a realist is because of his scathing attack on the utopian community.
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Describe and Account for the changing role of the Bretton-Woods institutions from the 1940's until today and assess their impact on globalisation.
A liberalist account of the role of institutions was used for the purposes of this essay since the institutions formed from Bretton-Woods conference were done so on a framework of commercial liberalism. The leaders of the capitalist West were aware that there was a need to create a reliable mechanism for determining the value of countries' currencies in relation to one another. In order for such a mechanism to work they would need a shared system with shared rules and conditions so that from trade, post World War II economic recovery and prosperity would be possible.
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The EU is making a concerted effort to indoctrinate School children to think as European and not British. Once the children think European the Parents will soon follow. A report in the Guardian newspaper of 27 February indicated the existence of a team of psychologists and cultural experts, recruited by the European Commission to target school children in the promotion of economic and monetary union. Schoolchildren are identified by the team as "strong vectors of information on the Euro" to sell the new single currency to a sceptical public. Education Departments of local authorities across Europe are being advised to start preparing textbooks, and teaching aids promoting Europe (taken from http://www.marxist.com).
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to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these principles. The six principal parts of the United Nations are the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. The United Nations family, however, is much larger; encompassing 15 agencies and several programs and bodies. One of the primary purposes of the United Nations is the maintaining of international peace and security.
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During the period 1940 to 1943, universal social security, family allowances, education reform, the main features of the National Health Service, and an all new revolutionary approach to budgetary policy had been placed on the political agenda. Two key names who helped to influence the policies of the 1945-1951 Attlee Government were William Beveridge and John Maynard Keynes. By focusing on policies which concentrated on the social aspects of the individual, Beveridge helped to promote citizenship through the provision of welfare services, whilst Keynesianism "meant government use of fiscal and monetary techniques to regulate the level of aggregate demand so as to create full employment" (p.
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