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  • Marked by Teachers essays 9
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  1. Examine International Intervention in the Case of the Sierra Leonean Civil War

    Coercive intervention is intervention without the consent of both sides of a conflict and is typically against the ruling party. Co-operative intervention tends to follow a peace accord, and can involve humanitarian assistance, mediation or peacekeeping. From an academic point of view, then, Sierra Leone is a wonderful case study for analysing the justification, and effectiveness, of different means of intervention. This essay shall chronologically examine the various attempts at intervention in the Sierra Leonean conflict, and to what extent they were effective.

    • Word count: 3014
  2. Britain's Nuclear Deterrent. The government argues that the conditions required for complete nuclear disarmament do not yet exist. This paper will argue that these conditions already exist for the UK and will examine the threat, costs, the environmental

    government policy that if our forces or if our people were threatened by weapons of mass destruction we would reserve the right to use appropriate proportionate responses which might, might, in extreme circumstances include the use of nuclear weapons' (Hoon, 2002b). Whereas prior to this statement most people believed that the UK's nuclear weapons capability would only be deployed in response to a nuclear attack from a third party it was now evident that it could be used as a response to a chemical or biological attack or even the 'threat' of such an attack.

    • Word count: 3349
  3. What is more important in international mediation power or impartiality?

    Mediation, in its most basic sense, turns a "dyadic relationship into a triadic interaction" (Bercovitch, 2002: 5). Contention arises due to the various beliefs of what actions this third member of the relationship should take in order to create a settlement. The general consensus, from the likes of Bercovitch, Skjelsb�k and Touval, is that mediators are actors who, as to further the efforts of conflict management between conflicting parties, enable communication when at times it might be impossible for the belligerents to do so.

    • Word count: 3452
  4. Despite the high hopes of a decade ago, post-communist Russia has clearly not emerged as a liberal democracy. Why has it not done so?

    Huntington called the 'third-wave of democratization', by a process termed as 'replacement', in which the authoritarian regime collapsed leaving a quasi-vacuum in political authority.3 Though the transformation is considered by some to be towards a democratic system of government in theory, the final destination is a matter of debate.4 In this work, we will first seek to establish what conditions are necessary for the establishment and consolidation of liberal democracy, and why Russia has not met these requirements. In this short analysis, it would be impossible to discuss in great detail all the reasons but the most vital will be dwelt upon.

    • Word count: 3358
  5. Do Developing countries have much of a voice in WTO Decision-Making?

    On these grounds it seems fair to assume that the ITO was stillborn. The provisional agreement for the ITO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) became the agreement and furthermore the organisation for formulating and implementing, through dispute settlement, the international trade rules. As a result of negotiation, in 1995, this agreement on trade in goods became the World Trade Organisation. (http:/aic.ucdavis.edu/oa/smith.pdf) The WTO is a well established international organisation and is well renowned for assuring to all member states the provision of opportunity to interact on multilateral basis.

    • Word count: 3672
  6. Environmental Displacement. The issue of environmental refugees has been given a lot of attention in recent times by the media, policy makers and academics. The main area of apprehension is whether environmental change will cause large number of helpless

    In turn, such events result in ethnic and political conflict that can lead to violence and wars, which often proves to be the immediate reason for flight. Most environmental refugees eventually land in slums or camps that are set for internally displaced people in the country of their origin. However millions leave their country and look for refuge in neighboring states where they could cause more environmental complexities and conflict. But, according to Myers (1997), many amongst them make attempts to gain entry into developed nations of North America and Europe.

    • Word count: 3124
  7. Nato's Istanbul Cooperation Initiative. NATOs Istanbul Initiative inscribes itself in the Anglo-Saxon geopolitical vision that dominates the Atlantic Alliance, more particularly since the disintegration of the USSR.

    The debate rapidly witnessed an expansion of the middle ground, strongly influenced by the British's sense of history and culture. Three reasons for democracies to stay armed, and stay together, were advanced: First, Russia itself. This economic and sociological black hole does not mean that the remnant of central authority, to which Russia assimilates itself, is a "no-power." The sheer weight of history and nuclear power suffice to impede it from being so circumscribed. In fact, though it might reach in a generation's time a democratic level � la Turque, the only assumption on which it would be safe to

    • Word count: 6130
  8. EU Enlargement and Turkey

    In addition, useful and natural synergies must be exploited with the on-going debate on the Future of Europe. In the member states there are three key objectives. In order of priority, these are: 1. To Communicate the reasons for enlargement to the public, including its likely impact and the challenges it poses. The outcome should be improved understanding of the enlargement process, which in turn should assuage apprehensions about its impact. 2. To Promote dialogue at all levels of society between policy-makers and the public on issues related to enlargement.

    • Word count: 5908
  9. What was the Cold War and why did it end?

    This "war" has also caused and kept going the division of Europe and within Europe, Germany. It also facilitated the reconstruction and reintegration of Germany, Italy and Japan into the international system following their defeat in WWII. The Third World, also named as the South (Africa and Asia) especially felt the effects of it which extended along with the era of decolonisation and national liberation in the Third World causing more than a hundred wars since. It has also divided countries such as Korea and Vietnam.5 Therefore, this essay will be highlighting the rise and fall of the Cold War, the main causes to it and on what ways the East and the West were both affected by it.

    • Word count: 4211
  10. Which had the greater impact on thinking about international politics World War I or World War II?

    'The First World War was the key event of the twentieth century, from which everything else flowed' (Sheffield, 2001: 221). The general consensus of how the two World Wars did indeed shape world politics is more concise, most institutions subscribing to the thought that after the demise of the German empire and the end of the First World War, Liberal Internationalism prevailed as the dominant theory, led by an enthusiastic Woodrow Wilson at the helm. Then, come the rise of Hitler and the Second World War, realism re-took it's dominant place in international political theory, but, as argued by Fred

    • Word count: 3309
  11. Democracy is not possible in South Asia because of the military's political role. Discuss.

    Democracy is seen as essentially a "procedure for making political decisions"2 which can have instrumental value in that the outcome it is likely to produce is worthwhile and favourable or intrinsic value whereby it democracy is valued for "its own sake" independently to the outcomes it generally produces.3 'Democracy' today it is almost exclusively referring to representative or indirect democracy. It is argued that a direct form of democracy is in fact more democratic than its indirect counterpart however "the older democracies",4 the United States, Britain and France, were unable to replicate the Athenian style of direct democracy thus a representative form was employed, this will be important later on in this essay.

    • Word count: 4033
  12. Has the 21st Century really seen a dramatic shift in the principles of US foreign policy?

    Bush declared in his address to the Congress: "Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbour terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime" (Bush, 2001). Hence, as opposed to the two post-Cold War administrations led by Bush Sr. and Clinton both of whom struggled with development and articulation of a clear, publicly defensible foreign policy strategy and vision (Dumbrell, 2008, p.91-103), Bush Jr. administration could restore, as a result of the terrorist attacks, the issue of national security as the central principle for US foreign policy.

    • Word count: 3340
  13. Did economic growth during the Chinese Economic Reform contribute to human development?

    From then on, unprecedented economic growth occurred, with the Gross Domestic Product increasing by 9.5% a year (Economic Statistics by country). The first stage of the Economic Reform, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, involved the decollectivization of agriculture, the opening up of the country to foreign investment, and granting of permission for entrepreneurs to start up businesses, with most industry remained state-owned. The second stage of reform, in the late 1980s and 1990s, included the privatization of much state-owned industry and the lifting of price controls, protectionist policies and regulations, although state monopolies in sectors such as banking and petroleum still remained.

    • Word count: 3978
  14. Several times in the 2nd half of the century, the military has ousted the elected government of Turkey, but has handed power back to the civilians after year or so. Why has it not dispensed with civilian government altogether and assured direct rule it

    Before demonstrating how Turkey's armed forces lies in a crucial trinity, it will provide contextual explanations in order to highlight the fact that each coup can be understood separately. Finally, it will conclude by suggesting that there are also long term explanations that reveal political characteristics inherent to the Turkish process of State consolidation. 1)Theoretical explanation : Huntington's typology of military regime The post-colonial era for a state is a period of insecurity and vulnerability, this consequently explains why this specific type of state has been characterised as highly centralised and heavily equipped in terms of military potential.

    • Word count: 3226
  15. What is the meaning and significance of the term passive revolution in Antonio Gramscis analysis of history and politics?

    It was only his morality that kept him positive in the search for the creation of a better society. Passive revolution is under pinned by two assertions. Firstly, no social formations disappear as long as the productive forces which have developed within them still find room for further forward movement. Secondly, society itself does not set itself tasks for whose solution the necessary conditions have not already been incubated (Gramsci 1971). Thus a theory of passive revolution can be defined as an instance of revolution where demands and objectives are accommodated but the underlying vision of the revolution is a conservative readjustment of power.

    • Word count: 3365
  16. Golda Meir: A Light Amidst the Hours of Dark

    activities, Golda admired her objectives and was greatly influenced by the meetings she witnessed in her home when her sister would organize clandestine sessions to discuss various concepts that were forbidden at the time such as overthrowing the czar and creating a Jewish socialist state in Palestine. 1 Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Golda Meir Speaks Out (London 1973) pp. 20 "Jewish Problem" and Zionist Parties in Russia The vicious cycle of anti-Semitism brought forth the notion of the "Jewish Problem" which in itself created an additional societal crisis that gave way to a clearer gap between the Jewish and Non-Jewish populations of the time.

    • Word count: 7383
  17. Anglo-American Relations

    Tension persisted throughout the Nineteenth century, with the two countries at war in 1812, the British famously burning down the President's residence. Fifty years later, the US Civil War raised new tensions, with Britain failing to provide either the Union or Confederate governments with overwhelming support, until the outcome of the conflict conclusively revealed itself. Yet by the Twentieth centuries, both nations based foreign and military policy upon shared experience fighting two world wars during the first half of the century.

    • Word count: 3776
  18. Conflicts are far more likely to be caused by greed than by grievance. Discuss (Collier, 2000)

    Although the number of conflicts has decreased in the last decade the chilling words of Mandela are a reminder of the need for a comprehensive study of the roots of conflict. Furthermore the disproportionate amounts of civil conflict experienced in unstable post colonial states in Sub Saharan Africa [e.g. Sierra Leone] undergoing democratic transition further reinforces the need for conflict prevention in order to ensure consolidation of the state and subsequent political and economic development in these regions. Violent conflict especially in the form of civil uprising is popularly understood as grievance based especially in the case of liberation/ rebel [depending on your perspective] groups in Africa rising up against corrupt governments (Collier; 2006).

    • Word count: 3385
  19. Is Chinese society becoming more socially diverse? What are the major social sources of conflicts in Chinese society today?

    Business people b. The intellectuals and elites 3. There are inadequate built-in mechanisms which help the underprivileged 4. Chinese media do not speak out for the poor, the underprivileged and the weak. 5. There is the value erosions 6. Polarization and inequality Gini coefficient The reason of polarization of rich and poor / inequality a. The widening gap between regions b. The impact of accession to the WTO B. Is Chinese society becoming more socially diverse? In my point of view, I think that the Chinese society is becoming more socially diverse. In the following, I will have a further explain of this.

    • Word count: 4037
  20. How did new military technologies change warfare? Consider the period from 1815 to 1914.

    typically on changes in war and technology in Europe'.4 In highlighting this Euro-centricity, it leads to the ascertaining of a one-sided view of the new military technological advances that arose during the period 1815 to 1914. While this essay examines the military technological changes in warfare from the period 1815 to 1914, readers should take into account that there have been many widespread technological advances throughout the beginning of time, dating from the pre-classical to the medieval periods and the modern age.

    • Word count: 3240
  21. What were the fundamental flaws in the German strategy during the Second World War

    An example of this can be derived from the French-Russian Mutual Assistance Pact (2 May 1935). However, in 1939 they managed to overcome the problem of a two-front war by signing a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, thereby dealing with the eastern threat1. They then turned their attention onto Poland, who became encircled with the Soviets invading from the east while they invaded from the west. With no prospects of winning, or retreating, Poland was swiftly defeated within a few weeks2.

    • Word count: 3007
  22. Critically examine the relationship between war and underdevelopment

    (Allen, 2000). These wars were situated almost entirely in developing countries. From 1989 to 1995, there were between 31 and 54 globally documented struggles occurring each year, and an average of 15 major wars happening at any one time. (Roberts & Hite, 2007) Of these conflicts, a number were older ideological struggles that continued in a unique manner, like the one in Afghanistan; others were long-lasting separatist struggles, such as those in Sri Lanka and Eritrea. Meanwhile, the Central American conflicts came to an end in a troubled deadlock; though some continuation was seen in Mexico.

    • Word count: 3583
  23. Free essay

    Ireland and the Celtic Tiger

    The Celtic Tiger and Economic Growth Ireland's period of sustained economic growth began in the early 1990's. The economic success that was achieved over the twenty-year period is a result of many factors, when combined created a distinctive and intangible asset. (Dorgan 2006) Ireland has reversed the trend of seeing its citizens emigrating, to a country that has a reputation for having a thriving knowledge based economy, and an influx of both foreign and returning Irish workers. (Dorgan 2006) The Irish economy boasts an educated and skilled workforce, which in turn has seen the economy move away from the traditional agriculture and manufacturing sectors, to an economy based on the services industry and highly valued knowledge based employment.

    • Word count: 4279
  24. Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    (O'Ballance 1995: 246) What is the size of these groups in absolute and relative terms? Following a census in 1991, BiH's 4.4 million people were comprised of: 43.7% Muslim, 31.3% Serb, 17.5% Croat, and the remainder of those were of mixed parentage and those who identified themselves as "Yugoslavs". (Wood 2001: 67) Do they live concentrated or dispersed? (Map from Wood 2001: 67) * This map shows that previous to the outbreak of the war the 3 ethnic groups lived dispersed across the nation; several areas were multiethnic, but most areas homogeneous.

    • Word count: 3755
  25. In what ways did the institutional legacy of the Franco regime shape Spain(TM)s transition to democracy?

    (Colomer 1991: 1283) This sudden surge of democratisation has been labelled as part of the "first wave" of Huntington's, "Three Waves of Democracy", a concept that comes from one of the most universally renowned piece of literature on the subject of democratic transitions. (Huntington 1991: 13-26) Being in the first wave of democratic transitions, it could be assumed that subsequent transitions would follow the mould of Spain's transition. However what was witnessed in Spain was in fact totally unique to Spain.

    • Word count: 3420

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the impact that enlargement will have on the size and economy of the European Union. How will regional and economic policies alter to accommodate the accession of new member states?

    "In conclusion, I feel that enlargement, overall, will have a major impact on both the size and economy of the European Union. Although the EU will become a larger trading block, of approximately 500 million people, the relatively underdeveloped nature of the new member states' economies will mean that the impact on trade will be felt in the medium and long term rather than short term. The alteration of both the economic and regional policies in order to accommodate the accession of the new member countries will bring about a sense of cohesion and co - operation into the union as well as a sense of belonging. "Enlargement does not only serve as a momentum for institutional reform, it also provides current member states with the opportunity to re - open existing policy deals and bargain for a more advantageous outcome" (Stennenberg 2001 p 365)"

  • "There was no general drift to war in 1914 rather there was the determination of one power (Germany) to exploit the Balkan crisis to change the international status quo in its favour". Critically evaluate this statement.

    "In my opinion the Balkan crisis was used by Germany as a stepping stone to what we now know as world war one. Germany had always felt left out in colonial expansion. Germany felt that Britain and France were denying them their rightful share of colonial influence. They thought the Balkan crisis was their chance to increase their colonial influence without the help of Britain or France. Therefore Germany exploited the Balkan crisis in an effort to change the international status quo in its favour. Germany totally exploited the Balkan crisis to their advantage. They were determined to change the international status quo in its favour. They knew that by backing Austria during the crisis, they in turn would support Germany should a war start. Germany knew that backing Austria during the crisis would eventually lead to a European conflict and when Austria handed its ultimatum to Serbia, this conflict started. In a way Germany got what it wanted even though they weren't seen as being the ones who started the war. Germany knew that by backing Austria, it would mean that the already fragile lines of communication between Austria and Serbia would be irreconcilably damaged. This ensured that the international status quo was changed in Germanys favour."

  • To what extent do the ideas of the 'Third Way' represent a new form of politics?

    "In conclusion I shall prefer to sit on the fence and watch the Third Way unravel itself. For as I have suggested the Third Way certainly could be interpreted as a unique form of modern politics. However the Third Way will be interpreted differently by each European government. Thus in order for the Third Way to be successful as truly new form of politics that really can transgress the line between left and right it must be introduced with certain structural elements. Firstly there is a need for 'moral principles and priorities'. Secondly there is a need for 'a more detailed, clear ideology that relates more to the real world' and thirdly 'these principles need to be clear, with policies and practices on how to change current policies to Third Way policies'. (David Halpern **) ** _ Unknown Date"

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