Compare and contrast the development theories of Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky
Compare and contrast the development theories of Piaget, Bruner and Vygotsky Child development has been an area of study that has attracted an enormous amount of interest and debate since the last century. Jean Piaget (1886 - 1980) pioneered the theory of cognitive development and has possibly been one of the most influential figures within this area. However, the work of Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934) and Jerome Bruner has been paramount in discrediting a lot of the work carried out by Piaget. However, it should be remembered that Piaget has influenced education in many ways. His theories and studies show that knowledge is acquired by active exploration and many of his theories are still being used within the education system today. This essay will compare and contrast the development theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Bruner. Analysing the theories of each, and whilst not arguing that one theory is truer than the other, discovering the comparisons between the three through evidence and facts, gained through a variety of sources and asking questions of each theory throughout. Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. He believed that cognitive development is a result of others transmitting rules and norms to children. Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice, first on the social
In my discussion I am going to describe about statutory provision for a children under 5 years in a nursery class of a state school. Explain how to prepare to work in a placement with children. B1. Explain why first impression you make in the setting are
D1 Describe the purpose of one setting that is statutory provision for each age range. In my discussion I am going to describe about statutory provision for a children under 5 years in a nursery class of a state school. School may work closely with a Link Inspector, Educational Psychologist and Educational Social Worker make regular visits to support pupils and staff. They focus on child development and preparation for a successful transition to primary school education. They have different activities like to motivate and stimulate the children's learning abilities by using play activities; interacting with and supporting children, providing them with a secure environment to learn; organizing learning materials and resources, and making imaginative use of resources; assisting with the development of children's personal/social and language abilities; encouraging children's mathematical and creative development through stories, songs, games, drawing and imaginative play,etc. Another example for children aged between 5 & 7 years. They are in key stage 1 (Year 1 and 2). They require knowledge, skills and understanding for each subject. The statutory subjects that all pupils must study are art and design, design and technology, English, geography, history, information axnd communication technology, mathematics, music, physical education and science. Religious education must also
Unit 1 Section B Health and Social Care
Introduction In this section, I am going to be focusing on two main professions; a Nursery Nurse, and the other a doctor. I will be looking at the skills and qualifications needed to fulfil these roles. Then, I will look at the advantages and disadvantages that are involved in these important roles. To get full marks, I will need to include their daily routines, qualities and skills in detail. Doctor's daily routine: General practitioners (GPs) diagnose and treat a wide range of health conditions that can have physical, emotional or social causes. They talk to and examine patients to help to diagnose their condition. They can give patients advice on health issues, prescribe medicine or treatment, perform minor surgery or, where appropriate, refer patients to other healthcare professionals. They also educate patients about healthy lifestyles and have responsibility for preventative programmes, such as health screening and flu vaccinations. For most people, GPs are their first point of contact with the National Health Service (NHS). Most GPs work Monday to Friday, starting at 8am or 8.30am and finishing by 6.30pm. Some run Saturday morning surgeries and provide out-of-hours cover. Part-time work is becoming increasingly common. GPs work indoors in doctors' surgeries, but also travel locally to visit patients at home and to attend meetings. Here is an example I got from the
Introduction to Child Study.
Introduction to Child Study The child I will be studying is Mica. She was born on the 26th December 1999. She is now 3 years and 7 months old. Mica is of mixed race with lovely brown curly hair and beautiful brown eyes. She is a very lively and outgoing child. Mica can also be very shy with strangers dependent on their approach to her. Mica is rather tall for her at 108 1/2 cm or 42 1/2 inches tall and wears clothes aged 4-5. She gets the height from her father's side of the family. She also has a size 9 feet, which is large for her age. Mica is very happy, chatty child who can mix with most children, and attends the local nursery five days a week all day whilst her parents work. She has a wide imagination and often pretends to be a teacher using the skills her teachers use at nursery which she as noticed. Mica loves to play along in games with others and amuses herself when alone. She loves to play with her dolls and teddy bears but also likes watching television. Mica's favourite programme is Tweenies, she also likes to watch films, and her favourite is Monsters Inc. She often relays what is happening in the film like when the monster is talking she will say the words before him or when the little girl is about to scream she will prior to it happening. Mica lives in a two bed-roomed flat in West Bowling with her mother Favel aged 29 and her father Chris aged 33. Mica as
Developing Effective Communications in Health and Social Care
Developing Effective Communications in Health and Social Care Describe the Stages of the Communication Cycle and Reflect On Your Own Experiences (P2) The Communication Cycle was first identified in 1965 by Charles Berner. A few years later, Michael Argyle (1972), said that interpersonal communication was a skill that had to be learned, just as you would learn to drive a car. He said that when you are driving a car, you have to change your method to match the conditions of what is happening on the road. Driving involves a constant cycle of watching what is happening in the road, working out how to respond, making the required responses and then repeating this cycle until the end of your journey. Argyle argued that, communication involved much the same 'cycle' as driving a car required. The stages involved in this cycle are: . Ideas occur 2. Message coded 3. Message sent 4. Message received 5. Message decoded 6. Idea understood To enable the cycle to work successfully, two or more parties must be present. Communicating involves expression of thought and interpretation of the other parties understanding. There are six stages to the communication cycle, the first is expressing your own thoughts, and the second is watching the other person non verbal response and body language. Thirdly is interpreting the other person's body language and trying to work out what
child study visit
Date of Visit: 16th October 2006 Length of Visit: 2 hours and 40 minutes Place: Park People Present: Sam, Me Aim of Visit-Plan Today I am going to take Sam to the park, which is only about a 10 minute walk from her house. By doing this I should hopefully very easily be able to observe her gross motor skills as there will be a lot of apparatus there for her to play on that will enable her to use the large muscles in her body e.g-climbing frame etc. Whilst at the park I have also planned to play 'Simon says' with her by playing this game I will be able to observe some of her intellectual skills by seeing how she responds to instructions. Observations When Sam found out that we were going to the park she got really excited. As soon as we got there she immediately ran over to the swings and she needed me to start her off on the swing by pushing her once and then she used her legs to make her keep moving. After about two or three minutes she wanted to get off the swing and she asked me to get her off because the swing was a little bit high as her feet didn't touch the floor when she sat on it. She then wanted to go on the slide and ran straight over to it. When she was climbing up the ladder to the slide, another little girl came over to the slide and started climbing up the ladder iswell behind Sam (She looked younger than Sam and I don't think she was above 2 years old).
How has health changed over the years?
How Health has changed over the Years Ideas about health have changed in two main ways: firstly, the accessibility of services and their funding; and secondly, the methods of providing healthcare. Between the years of 1945 and 1951, a labour government established an extensive health and welfare system. After passing the National Health Service Act in 1946, the healthcare system went into affect in 1948. The Act said that all inhabitants had the right to access free healthcare. Before this change most people were unable to access healthcare because they couldn't afford it. However, the new system became too expensive for the government, so to resolve this they brought in charges for things like prescriptions, dentures and glasses. Tax revenue pays for most of the costs and the rest comes from national insurance, paid by employees and employers. Prices for items such as prescriptions and glasses have risen, but not everyone has to pay for them. Groups of people such as children, pregnant women, the unemployed, those over 60 and those disabled have access to free prescriptions. Another act, the NHS and community care Act in 1990, tried to make health care better and less expensive by encouraging competition. To introduce this idea they allowed other hospitals to become trusts, this means they have control over the finance given by the government instead of local
child development visit 1
Visit 1 (Focusing on Physical Development) Date Of Visit: Wednesday 28th February 2007 Time: 4.30pm - 5.30pm Age Of Child: 4 years old Location: Richard's house People present: Richard's mum and dad What is Physical Development? Physical development is one of the easiest developments to observe and recognise in children. There are two separate parts to physical development growth, which is about the physical changes in the child (increase in size, height and weight), and development, which is about how children begin to gain control over their physical actions, so they can do more complex activities. Aims and Planning My aim is to focus on Richards's physical development. I am going to be looking at his gross and fine motor skills. I will also be watching his sensory skills by reading to him and asking him to identify words and pictures. There are many activities which I can monitor Richard's Physical Development. Expectations For gross motor skills Richard should be able to: . Run up and down stairs, one foot per step. 2. Stand, walk and run on tiptoe. 3. Walk with a good sense of balance. 4. Bend and pick up objects from the floor. 5. Climb on frames. For fine motor skills Richard should be able to: . Hold a pencil in an adult fashion. 2. Copy the letters O, H and T 3. Copy a building pattern of three steps. 4. Draw a person showing head, legs and
Describe the expected stage of social development of children aged 4 years. Describe ONE suitable method of observing and recording the social development of children aged 5 years.
. Describe the expected stage of social development of: * Children aged 4 years. D1. Most of the children aged 4 years likes to: * Play in groups with other children * Takes turns and shares (most of the time) e.g. when using drawing crayons * Wants explanations of why? And how? When engaged in conversation * Enjoys role play and acting out e.g. super hero * Likes to talk, carries on with conversation * Changes the rule of a game as he/she goes along * Demands for things e.g. for a certain toy * Plays more imaginary, acting out like a mother * Children aged 5 years. D2. Most children aged 5 years will: * Now choose their friends e.g. has certain friends they like to play with * Takes turns, shares (sometimes) e.g. when drawing and sharing pencil crayons * Enjoys co-operative activities and also group play * Says please and thank you when offered something to eat or drink * Shows kindness to other children, inviting them to play and being helpful * Resolves conflicts before seeking adult help * Carries on with conversation with adults and children * Seeks adult approval 2. Consider how and why practitioners observe children in the setting: * Describe ONE suitable method of observing and recording the social development of children aged 5 years. D3. Written Narrative - Naturalistic. This method is used when what is seen and heard are happening
Unit 1 Section C Health and Social Care
Unit 1: Section C Introduction All care work is about improving the client's quality of life by meeting people's intellectual, emotional and social needs, as well as their physical needs. One way of doing this is for care practitioners to empower their clients. Care practitioners empower clients by promoting certain values, which are important to both the care practitioner and the client. These values form the basis for a set of principles that help care workers to gibe the kind of care each individual client requires. The principles are also there as guidelines for the General Practitioner and the Nursery Nurse. Promoting anti-discriminatory practice: * Freedom from discrimination. * The right to be different. * Aware of assumptions made surrounding gender, race, age, sexuality, disability and class. * Understand prejudice, stereotyping and labelling their effects. * Use of language (political correctness). Promoting anti-discriminatory In the world today, all people are different, because of this; people find it easy to think that some people are better than others or that some opinions are right, whilst others are wrong - we must always consider the fact that different people see the world in different ways, and that our way of thinking may sometimes seem unusual to someone else. This difference between people is called diversity and we should value it. Unfair