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AS and A Level: Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 32
  • Peer Reviewed essays 6
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Analysis of Rhetoric in "Into the Wild" by Jon Krakauer

    5 star(s)

    Krakauer uses factual details from McCandless?s life in order to show the audience that McCandless was not, in fact, crazy. In this example, Krakauer is relaying McCandless?s high achievement throughout college- good grades in a well-established major, participation in extracurricular activities, and committing to graduating college. By stating credible facts, Krakauer creates an appeal to logos, otherwise known as an appeal to logical thinking. It cannot be denied that McCandless indeed had his act together throughout his life. Krakauer continues this appeal in the presentation of McCandless? journal, relaying ?Although the tone of the journal? often verges towards melodrama, the available evidence indicates that McCandless did not misinterpret the facts; telling the truth was a credo he took seriously? (29).

    • Word count: 2755
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Exploring the genre and style of the Political Interview - Paxman and Galloway interview

    5 star(s)

    Trudgill's theories can also be explored; in particular, his belief that men would often use a low prestige pronunciation - thereby seeking covert prestige by appearing "tough" or "down to earth". Hypothesis Both Paxman and the political interviewees will display typical male speech to gain dominance and authority over the conversation. Aims The aims will be to: - Investigate how 'male' language is used to assert ownership of a conversation - Compare my findings with research on male gender language from theorists such as Tannen and Trudgill.

    • Word count: 3977
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Language Aquisition Notes

    5 star(s)

    Nelson also said that in Re-casts (e.g. Ben - "me ball" mum - "pass me the ball") children whose sentences were re-cast performed better at imitating sentences * Halliday is just the functions of child language, I remember them like RRIIIPH, like rest in peace: o Representational - "I've got something to show you" - language showing how they feel, declarative o Regulatory - "Do as I tell you" - requesting/asking for things o Instrumental - "I want"- expressing needs/wants o Interactional - "Me and you" - speaking to other, establishing personal contact o Imaginative - "Let's pretend" - imaginative language, used with play, to create imaginary world.

    • Word count: 5494
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating how language has changed in children's literature; in relation to interaction between children and characters of authority in a boarding school setting.

    5 star(s)

    There will also be a decrease in the frequency of adjective use in speech exchange but not in initial description, as the texts become more modern. The students will gradually use more colloquial speech patterns, but the formality of the authoritative character's speech will remain the same. The relationship between student and teacher will have steadily become more familiar over time between pupil and teacher; this shift in status demonstrates the changing social perception of authoritative figures in modern society from an austere distant relationship to a more supportive role.

    • Word count: 7106
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Explore how Tim Collins addresses his troops in a motivational speech

    4 star(s)

    He demands his troops are "magnanimous in victory". The use of the complex emotive word "magnanimous" shows how he reminds them to act respectfully thus emphasising he also cares for the Iraqis. Collins uses quite a complex word when he could have just used a simpler adjective such as "noble": It could be argued that the high complexity of the adjective "magnanimous" mirrors the level of nobility and respect he expects from his troops. To add to the effect the word is emphasised through his tone of voice as shown by the fact that it is written in bold in the text.

    • Word count: 970
  6. Marked by a teacher

    When comparing the two travel based texts, the different ways in which each text expresses their key ideas and perspectives thorough language and presentation is critical as to how well they appeal to their targeted audiences.

    4 star(s)

    by the operators, and as a secondary purpose it challenges the coach operators to ensure that their advertisements match the experience in reality. In addition to this, as the type of text is an article for a magazine called Coach and Bus Week, the audience is likely to be people very interested in coach and bus travel, and may also include coach operators who have invested money into this industry. In contrast, the informative and promotional Rail Information Leaflet similarly appeals to a small audience, but is targeted at a different range of people, as it appeals to those living in the South East, with the main targeted group being families.

    • Word count: 1720
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Obamas announcement for President

    4 star(s)

    He don't divide people, but gather them together under one unit, with a good effect on the receiver. He has been praised for his language skills, and many critics accused Obama for taking language lessons. In this speech he uses his known 'skills,' and it works, he never talks about himself and the american people as it was two groups, all of his sentences is either 'we' or 'our,' which again makes him more believable. The topic of the speech is America - how they are 'one nation' and how unity conquers everything. He uses different kind of rhetorical elements to make his speech trustworthy and one of them is American civil religion, one of the less implicit

    • Word count: 654
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Class and Gender conflict in Pygmalion

    4 star(s)

    Henry Higgins represents the upper class of society, those that are expected to be both educated and wealthy. He is profoundly aware of his status and is not particularly sympathetic towards those of the lower class. This is revealed as he is first introduced to Liza and refers to her as a 'squashed cabbage leaf.' (Shaw, 2003:18) This first scene is important as it establishes the class differences that are evident within the language contrasts of each of the characters. Higgins plays an important role in establishing this theme as he places great emphasis on phonetics. He has the ability to place an individual within the geographical location of their place of origin.

    • Word count: 1519
  9. Marked by a teacher

    Representation is governed by perspective. For this reason composers will attempt to manipulate their construction of events and characters, to bring to the fore of public discussion, their own esteemed perspective. This becomes evident in texts of, T

    4 star(s)

    The powerful and emotive tone used by Robertson to convey Michael X, coupled with the historical dialogue from the trial, humanizes and elevates the convicted criminal thus the audience is positioned to have an empathetic reaction to the Character as Robertson presents Michael, as a paradigm for all individuals on death row, positioning him as a hero, "token black." Thus he convinces his audiences to see the need to abolish the death penalty, for such a "changed man." Robertson acknowledges the opposing perspective giving credence to his own argument.

    • Word count: 1336
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Exams should be abolished speech

    4 star(s)

    Even parents take exams as a race to see whose children are more intelligent. Students shouldn't be judged on their performance on one day when they might be ill. The exams might not be completely representative of the student's skills as everyone can have a bad day. They are a poor method of assessment as they don't reflect the use of knowledge in a practical environment. They don't reflect how well you'll be able to use your knowledge in real world occupations.

    • Word count: 889
  11. Marked by a teacher

    The Growth and Importance of English as a Global Language.

    4 star(s)

    The English language's earliest origins are from the Germanic language group. This group began as a common language about 3,000 years ago. Many different European languages developed from this Germanic group, depending on which part of this sector - the region of the Elbe river - they were closer to. For example, North Germanic evolved into the modern Scandinavian languages of Swedish, Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic; and East Germanic, which was adopted by Southeast European countries. West Germanic, however, is the language from which English developed, along with German, Dutch and Flemish.

    • Word count: 2647
  12. Marked by a teacher

    Sequential and simultaneous bilingualism.

    4 star(s)

    On the other hand, Bloomfield and Thiery's (1978) theory defines a bilingual as the individual who possesses proficient fluency in two languages, being, therefore, monolingual in both. That level of bilingualism would leave out those individuals that use two languages regularly but not at that standard. Haugen (1969) takes that into account; "Bilingualism... may be of all degrees of accomplishment, but it is understood here to begin at the point where the speaker of one language can produce complete, meaningful utterances in the other language. From here it may proceed through all possible gradations up to the kind of skill that enables a person to pass as a native in more than one linguistic environment."

    • Word count: 2183
  13. Marked by a teacher

    Summary of "Critical period effects in second language learning - The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language", by Jacqueline S. Johnson and Elissa L. Newport,

    4 star(s)

    The hypotheses tested mainly focused on the effects of age on second language attainment. Two studies were done on immigrants who were abiding in the U.S. for approximately five years. According to the interviews conducted by Patkowski in 1980 and the language facts studied by Oyama in 1978, results inferred that the earlier the subjects arrived, the more knowledgeable and well rounded they were on the use of English. The topics pertaining to this research are as follows and are further discussed in the methods section: "1.

    • Word count: 1217
  14. Marked by a teacher

    COMPARATIVE COMMENTARY -Malcolm Cowleys essay The View and When I grow old by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings

    3 star(s)

    Both texts share a general audience as they are directed both to children, adults, and old aged people. They show different realities that people can pass through, a good one, were you will live happy, and a bad one, were you will live with "aching bones". The purpose of the first passage is to transmit feelings and experiences in a positive way, were people ages in a peaceful environment; while the purpose of the second text is to advice and inform the reader how he would feel when he becomes old, expressing the harsh reality he will be facing.

    • Word count: 1058
  15. Marked by a teacher

    Commentary for English Language AS. The article I chose to write was based on the influences of the media on peoples body images in the world today and how it affects many young teenagers in trying to fulfil this ideal image of a size zero.

    3 star(s)

    Starting off my first paragraph is the use of a declarative sentence which just generally states the facts that the urges people have to feel good about themselves is highly disintegrating to virtually nothing. The declarative sentence is used to state a fact which allows the reader to feel like we know what we are talking about; making them feel that what they are reading is worth while and helpful in ways to carry on reading. Leading off my 2nd paragraph is again another rhetorical question, again to include the reader and make them feel more involved in the text.

    • Word count: 626
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Language and representation has Political Correctness gone too far?

    3 star(s)

    Political correctness according to linguists has been around since the turn of the century and was first seen in the 1930's in print defending the prejudice terms attacking coloured people within society. The term racialist has been around since the turn of the century and was changed to r****t in the 1930's. The term was used to stop and label those who are prejudice and discriminative towards people of a different colour. Another term that labelled a different kind of prejudice was the term s****t which was used repeatedly from the 1960's in particular.

    • Word count: 1484
  17. Marked by a teacher

    Symbolism in The Kite Runner

    3 star(s)

    He develops a friendship with his servant named Hassan. In fact, Amir is a Pashtun(1) and Hassan is a Hazara(2). He knows that neither history nor religion can change who they are; thus, he never considers Hassan as his friend. Amir and Hassan grow up together; they feed from the same breast and learn to crawl. They always spend time together, running kites, playing hide and seek, cops and robbers, etc. One of the most memorable times that Amir and Hassan spend together is sharing their dreams and stories.

    • Word count: 2300
  18. Marked by a teacher

    English Monologue - Demons

    3 star(s)

    Not too sure what they exactly are, but honestly, I think it's to do with the demons. Don't want to think about it as I feel like I'm going insane - as it can come and grab me; It can creep up inside me and consume me. Which is a disease of the mind, it can control you as it's too close for comfort. I need help, help that's observable and curable as I need to be released from this curse... I'm trying very hard to remain tame, but in theory I'm struggling. (Scene 2 - talking to himself)

    • Word count: 1518
  19. Marked by a teacher

    English Language Coursework

    3 star(s)

    While the people keep arriving and singing, the amount of relevance to god and the church becomes less and less until the last young man sings: Man: Ow you sexy Motherf- He is then interrupted by Geraldine. The change in the songs that they sing and the concept of a swear word, adds comedy because the point in the auditions seem to get further and further away as the topic of each song changes and we're left with a boy rapping.

    • Word count: 1286
  20. Marked by a teacher

    The Color Purple

    3 star(s)

    So jealousy breaks down the relationship, and this is illustrated by dialogue. Corrine confronts Nettie, and tells her they should call each other sisters, they should not borrow each others clothes, and the children can't call her 'Mama Nettie'. Nettie tells us she is bothered by this, but does not say anything to argue with Corrine, only 'you feeling yourself?' This part of the extract shows that the usual sisterhood attitude of the women can at times be broken down by jealousy. Another huge idea that is consistent throughout the novel is the suggestion that men are superior, and dominate over females.

    • Word count: 1183
  21. Marked by a teacher


    3 star(s)

    From beginning to the end of the novel, Philip Roth expressed issues of teen's s****l drives in adolescence and the flaws they had in those years. The second chapter of the novel was titled "Whacking Off," which gave me a nasty feeling in my stomach of what I was about to indulge into. As I go on reading Roth describes the desperate urge the main character Alex Portnoy has to m********e due to hormones flowing and puberty starting in life.

    • Word count: 1219
  22. Marked by a teacher

    Antiheroes are the protagonists that do not have hero-like qualities and characteristics, such as Gregor Samsa in The Metamorphosis and Isa in "American School". After much analyzing, these two characters can be understood as antiheros.

    3 star(s)

    Therefore, qualities of an antihero include average characters, lacks courage, inferior, belittled, shy, and a follower. Antiheroes are literary figures (leading characters most of the time) that do not possess typical heroic qualities. Their roles in the stories are to represent the irony of imperfect characters. Stories tend to have this hero, or leading figure, that is brave and saves the day. Antiheroes are important to the story because their "saving the day" may not be clear cut and can be argumentative. Antiheroes usually are proving a point that is understated and misunderstood. Their sympathetic failed attempt to play the hero in the stories makes their role look ironic and sometimes pathetic to the readers.

    • Word count: 1454
  23. Marked by a teacher

    Learning foreign languages is becoming more and more popular and necessary nowadays. The aim of the report is to examine this area.

    3 star(s)

    The data included in this report was obtained by means of a questionnaire. Constructing the questionnaire I was thinking how to create a questionnaire which would be easy to understand but also which would give me enough information that I needed. I decided to create ten questions. The types of questions were different. I used open - ended questions, multiple choice. In some of the multiple choice questions students were asked to choose more than one answer. In more complicated questions students could give their own additional information in spaces which were provided for it.

    • Word count: 1950
  24. Marked by a teacher

    Write a detailed analyse of the transcript of conversation.

    3 star(s)

    For example in the transcript one speaker states 'I had ice cream there so I licked it off'. Here the speaker uses a deictic, the other speakers know what that speaker is talking about even though the speaker does not fully explain. Also the context of speech is important to the speakers and listeners in the conversation as because of it the meanings and feelings within the conversation can be recognised easily even though they are not always explained. One speaker declares 'Steph's at it', the other speakers comprehend what she says with out the speaker filling in the details.

    • Word count: 832
  25. Marked by a teacher

    Accent, dialect and Gender bias.

    3 star(s)

    They are much more likely to use a woman with a soft accent. (Class notes) Dialect Dialects are also regional and culturally effected; however, it is unique to the vocabulary or syntax. Accents and dialects are connected for example; a Geordie dialect will be spoken with a Newcastle accent. Different people use different word to describe the same item throughout Britain. For example, in some areas people may ask for a soft drink, while in others they will refer to the same beverage as soda, pop cola or coke. Dialects can even be different in family members that live together.

    • Word count: 756

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "All human thoughts come into existence by grasping the meaning and mastering the use language" Polanyi - Do you agree? Discuss what the author means in the quotation and from a language perspective discern how it relates to knowledge.

    "Now at the end of the day, I can come to the conclusion, that everybody has his or her own definition of thought, meaning and mastering the use of language, and this might affects whether one agrees with Polanyi or not. I myself do not think that human thoughts only come into existence when grasping the meaning and mastering the use of language. I just have many thoughts, which are kept in my head, without using the language I would define as something used to communicate with others. As I am a human, and I constantly think, I believe that I do have human thoughts, and I know that some of them do come into existence, but they often stay in my head the way they are. Without being transformed into "real" language so others can understand me."

  • "If thought corrupt language, language can corrupt thought" Discuss

    "In conclusion to ascertain as to if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought, I totally agree. But I don't take the statement as serious as George Orwell does. He gives many examples of bad writing in the essay Politics and the English language, but I think I speak for everyone that one of those examples we use in our language every day. Does this make us bad writers? According to Orwell we are. I know it's just his opinion but he defiantly takes extremes and basically says that all essays, novels, political speeches that don't look like his own style of writing, are bad language."

  • "In order to find out how things really are, one must understand the filters through which one perceives the world." Discuss and evaluate this claim.

    "In my final conclusion I would argue, that it is nearly impossible to understand how things really are and perceive them in the same way that others do, as everyone perceives the world differently. On the other hand, by becoming aware of their filters, one might understand each individual perception and the way of gaining knowledge. Words: 1628 This is not including the title, footnotes and poem example. 1 John Berger, Ways of Seeing (BBC and Penguin Books, London, 1983) 2 (Albert Einstein) 3 The enterprise of knowledge, John L. Tomkinson 4 stated in 1978 by the Nobel Laureate in Literature winner Isaac Bashevis Singer 5 (Hume) Amelie Kuster ToK - Long Essay 1"

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