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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology

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  1. Psychology Revision Notes.

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    • Word count: 103
  2. Psychology Memory Revision Guide

    dissimilar * Write them in serial order * Made errors on recall * Convert visually present material to an acoustic code in STM and then find it hard to recognise between words that sound the same * Reliable ? lab * Lacks ecological validity Baddeley ? LTM Encoding * List of short familiar words * Acoustically similar and dissimilar * Semantically similar and dissimilar * Write them down * Words that sounded similar were harder to recall * STM codes acoustically * Reliable ? lab * Lacks ecological validity Working memory model Baddeley and Hitch * Explains in more detail

    • Word count: 1129
  3. Discuss the Cognitive Approach to Treating Disorders.

    Cognitive biases can be internal, global or stable. Depressed people use cognitive biases to view the world. A strength is that there is clear evidence for cognitive biases. Clarke found that individuals with panic disorders exaggerate the significance of physical symptoms. In addition, therapy based treatments are effective in treating anxiety disorders and depression e.g. CBT and REBT. A weakness of the approach is the idea of schemata and NATS are vague and unexplained. It?s not clear how irrational thoughts are designed and measured.

    • Word count: 512
  4. Discuss the Behavioural Approach to Treating Phobias

    It?s a reward and they are more likely to repeat it which may lead to eating disorders. Then there is social learning theory which is learning through observation and imitation. This is when you look at a role models behaviour, if they are being rewarded the individual may go down the same route as the role model is seen as successful (vicarious reinforcement). This theory can also be linked to eating disorders as exposure of young girls to successful thin women in the media. This linked is to pschopathogies because that maladaptive behaviour can also be learnt There is strong research support for the role of learning for example, Watson?s study on little albert demonstrated how phobias

    • Word count: 647
  5. Discussing the multi store model of memory.

    The two main stores in the sensory register are iconic and echoic, iconic memory is coded visually and echoic memory is coded acoustically. Material in the sensory register of lasts very briefly, up to a quarter to a half of a second. The capacity of the sensory register is high depending on the senses. Coding is based on the sense, in order for the information to last- attention is a key process. Short-term memory is known as a limited capacity because it can only withhold a certain number of things before forgetting takes place.

    • Word count: 719
  6. Explain Gibson's bottom up/ direct theory of perception

    Evidence to support Gibson?s Theory comes from Eleanor Gibson who demonstrated how 6 month of infants would refuse to cross over an apparent cliff when their mothers called. This was also the same in day old chicks and goats too suggesting that depth perception was an innate process, supporting Gibson?s theory that perception was a direct and biological process. However, a criticism is that the 6 month infants could have learnt perception in the early months which undermines supporting evidence.

    • Word count: 580
  7. Examine Gregorys Top-Down Indirect Theory

    Supporting research has been conducted into the errors people make due to experience. Brochet had wine experts to taste and then describe white and red wines. Each participant could describe the wine distinctively and explained them both to be different. In truth both wines were the same but the colours were different. This supports Gregory?s theory of perception as their original knowledge of wine influenced them more than the sensory information. Similarly, Bruner et al showed participants false playing cards for instance, black hearts and red clubs.

    • Word count: 730
  8. Outline and Evaluate the Multi-store model Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968 12/12

    First, information (environmental stimuli) is detected by the sense organs and passed into the sensory memory. This is coded by the five senses and lasts for a fraction of a second, when it then decays, or attention if given to it and it is passed into the short term memory. The short term memory is coded acoustically and holds 5-9 pieces of information for up to 30 seconds. It relies on maintenance rehearsal to keep the information in there, otherwise it decays or is displaced by other things.

    • Word count: 725
  9. Outline and evaluate the Multi Store Model of memory.

    on average, so cannot hold lots of information and a duration (how long it can retain the information for) of no more than half a minute. According to the model, for information to pass to our long term memory, we must rehearse it. Once it is in the long term memory it cannot be lost, except due to damage to the brain, and can be retrieved at any time. The long term memory store is said to have an unlimited capacity and duration.

    • Word count: 647
  10. Outline and evaluate the cognitive interview.

    This allows the witness to recreate the scene of the crime, which may jog their memory. In the third part of the CI, the interviewer may try alternative ways through the timeline of the incident, for example by reversing the order in which the event s occurred. This is an efficient way of getting them to remember details as it stops them thinking in one way (e.g.

    • Word count: 401
  11. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.

    It was found that the more powerful verb was used the higher the average speed given by the participants. For example, those who were given the verb ?hit ? estimated an average speed of 34.0 mph, while those who received the verbs smashed estimated a speed of 40.8 mph.

    • Word count: 419
  12. Outline and evaluate the working memory model

    The slave systems are the phonological loop which deals with auditory information. It is further sub- divided into the phonological store, which deals with auditory information, while the articulatory process (inner voice) rehearses the information from the phonological store. Then there is the visuo- spatial sketchpad stores and manipulate visual and spatial information. Lastly the episodic buffer is an extra storage that has in common with all the working memory units, limited capacity.

    • Word count: 427
  13. Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory.

    The STM can store ±7 items for approximately 15- 30 seconds acoustically. Information held in the STM is in a fragile state either because it simply decays or because new information comes along and displaces the old information if not rehearsed. If the information is sufficiently rehearsed it can enter LTM where limited information can be stored for as long as lifetime through semantic coding. One of the strengths of the MSM is that it is supported by neurological case studies. The MSM claims that STM and LTM are two separate store, which is supported by the case study of Clive Wearing.

    • Word count: 600
  14. Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. (12 marks)

    If this information is acknowledged or paid attention to, it enters the short-term memory. This information should stay in the short-term memory, if rehearsed for maintenance, for zero to eighteen seconds. If the rehearsal is elaborative, the information transfers to the long-term memory in which the capacity and duration is unlimited. However, if rehearsal does not occur in any moment of the stores, the information is either forgotten or lost from the short-term memory through decay or displacement.

    • Word count: 396
  15. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    If a person?s superego majorly outweighs the ego, the person may be depressed and not feel good enough for anything. If the person?s id outweighs, they are likely to be more aggressive and immoral as their superego doesn?t have much control. Defence mechanisms such as repression put bad memories into the unconscious to try to get rid of the bad memory to help reach a balance, but depression can occur from this. Depression, anxiousness and aggressiveness are results of imbalances of the id and superego, and the defence mechanisms work to fight against the imbalance.

    • Word count: 7993
  16. Describe and Evaluate Research by E.Loftus into Eye Witness Testimony, the implications of the findings and the Cognitive Interview.

    film which contained a 4 second scene of a multiple car accident and were then questioned about it. There were three conditions and the independent variable (verb used) was manipulated by the wording of the question. The first group was asked 'how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?' The second group was asked 'How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? 'The third group was not asked about the speed of the vehicles. One week later, the participants returned and, without viewing the film, again they were asked questions about the accident.

    • Word count: 3610
  17. Outline and evaluate the behavioural explanation of psychopathology

    For example, behavioural explanations of phobias assume that the feared object, such as spiders or rats was associated with feat or anxiety sometimes in the past. As in the classical conditioning process, a neutral stimulus paired with an unconditioned stimulus, resulting in a new stimulus- reposes link. The neutral stimulus is now therefore a conditioned stimulus producing a conditioned response. The conditioned stimulus subsequently evokes a powerful fear response characterized by avoidance of the feared object and the emotion of fear whenever the object is encountered.

    • Word count: 681
  18. Explanations of disorders of memory PY4

    The genes identified affect bodily processes which could become targets for treatments. Nee reported on a family with 531 family members. 53 were identified as suffering from the disease, which suggests that there is some contributing genetic factor. However it could be said that it is due to the environment which they all share, which are the same conditions, same social class and quality of living. It then makes it hard to differentiate between nature and nurture. Hendrie studied Yoruba people of Nigeria and compared then with Americans. Both had similar frequency of genes linked to AD but the Yoruba suffered much less from the disorder.

    • Word count: 1245
  19. Research into memory and forgetting has found evidence that there is a relationship between recall,forgetting and our emotional state.

    President Kennedy whereas black P's had FBM's of the assassinations of black people for e.g. Martin Luther King. This supports FBM's as it showed that emotional arousal,huge significance and persona relevance are important factors in the formation of FBM's. It was also suggested by Brown and Kulik that the ability to form FBM's would be useful for our ancestors for activities such as hunting and gathering to survive. This would be an evolutionary advantage as there would be trial and error and the errors would have caused trauma which in turn led to a FBM so the error would not be attempted again.

    • Word count: 1528
  20. Alternatives to the multi store model of memory.

    The ACP is known as the inner voice and it rehearses information verbally and has a capacity of about 2 seconds. It can be thought of as the system used to mentally rehearse information such as the rehearsal mentally of a phone number. The visuo-spatial sketch pad: this is used when you have a plan a spatial task. When imagining an object and rotating it your VSSP is being used. It uses a visual code representing information in the form of its features such as size, shape and colour.

    • Word count: 1564
  21. Outline the cognitive explanation of depression

    Beck also does not rule out a genetic component as he also suggests that negative cognitions may be as a result of inheriting different temperaments and that traumatic events and negative treatment in childhood can create negative schemas. One of these types of negative schemas that characterise depression is sociotrophy which relates to interpersonal relationships and individuals. A strength of the cognitive explanation of depression is that it has practical applications for the treatment of depression.

    • Word count: 481
  22. Psychology Describe and Evaluate the mulitstore model of memory.

    The model also shows the order or sequence that information goes through. There are other theories to support this model, for example Peterson and Peterson (1959) conducted an experiment in which a group of students were asked to recall ?trigrams? or words with 3 letters while counting backwards in their head until they saw a light in order to prevent rehearsal, the results showed that the longer the interval the less words people could remember which indicated that short term memory has a

    • Word count: 523
  23. Multi-Store Model of Memory. In this essay we will be looking at what research and evidence there is to support the model

    Murdock (1962) presented patients with a list of words, which they then had to recall. Experiments show that when participants are presented with the list, they tend to remember the first few (primacy effect) and last few words (recency effect) and are more likely to forget those in the middle (McLeod, simplypsychology.org). The primacy effect occurs because the first few items have already been rehearsed and transferred to LTM, whereas the recency effect occurs as the last few numbers are still being held in the STM.

    • Word count: 1356
  24. Outline and evaluate the working memory model. (12 marks) UPDATED

    The fourth component is the episodic buffer which acts as a store for visual and acoustic data. The different components of the working memory model are well supported by research evidence. For example Bunge et al. (2000) found that the same parts of the brain were active during reading and recalling tasks, but were more active when participants had to perform two attentional tasks at the same time than when these were performed sequentially (evidence for the central executive).

    • Word count: 419

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