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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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However Wright (1993) found evidence that goes against this definition, the study involved looking at people's memories of the Hillsborough football disaster in 1989, 5 moths after the event. It was found that most of the participants didn't report strong flashbulb memories; in fact many people had reconstructed their memories and had mixed their own with other people's accounts. This evidence therefore goes against the idea that flashbulb memories remain consistent over time. On the other hand Conway (1994) suggested that the reason some studies don't support flashbulb memories is because the event wasn't significant to the individuals.
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In psychology there are different methods of investigation, these would be observation, survey, clinical (case study), correlation and experimental methods.
An advantage here would be there is no effect on the participant from the observer. A disadvantage would be that the observer is away from the study so they rely on perception which may be inaccurate. The Structured Observation is planned, it watches and records behaviours as they happen in a controlled environment. An advantage here is that it gives a safe place to observe the participant, which in this type is normally a child. A disadvantage to this would be the lack of ecological validity. The Unstructured Observation is not planned; it does the same as the Structured Observation but is set in a natural environment.
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Cue dependent Forgetting. This experiment investigates Tulvings theory of cue dependent forgetting, with a directional hypothesis stating that context of the encoding setting would act as a cue to participants accessibility to memory, and allow the
higher recall rate in the same environment that supports what previous studies suggest This experiment was designed to help investigate the Cue-dependent forgetting theory by Tulvin. Cue-dependent forgetting is defined as: information is encoded and available in the brain but not accessible due to lack for retrieval cue. A retrieval cue is a stimulus that can be either external or internal, that allows the brain to access or recall stored information. It can be presented through any of the five senses, taste, see, hear, smell, or touch.
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Mineka et al (1980), however, found that wild-reared monkeys showed considerable fear of real, model and toy snakes, whereas laboratory reared monkeys only showed a mild response to the snakes. Mineka et al therefore concluded that observational-conditioning is involved in the origins of many human and non-human primates' fears and phobias. However, Bennett-Levy and Marteau challenged this finding as they claim that the laboratory-reared monkeys demonstrated the most fear of the real snake and that this was because the real snake showed a significant amount of movement.
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For this to happen the information has to be rehearsed. When information is recalled out of the Long Term Memory into the Short Term Memory it is called retrieval; this explains how we are able to recall information from a long time ago. The strengths of the Multi Store Model are that it has a large amount of supporting evidence. The case study of Clive Wearing, by Baddeley (1990), supports the idea that for information to be stored in the Long Term Memory it must move through the Short Term Memory.
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Dement and Kleitman studied 9 participants, 7 of which were male and 2 female adults. These 9 participants reported to the labs just before bedtime and were told to eat normally but avoid caffeine or alcohol. An EEG was attached to the face and scalp to amplify and record signals. Two or more were attached near the eye to record electrical changes caused by eye movement and three or more were attached to the scalp to indicate the depth of sleep. During REM sleep and non-REM sleep, participants were asked to wake up to test their dream recall.
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Describe the application of behaviorist perspectives in health and social care. Describe the application of psychodynamic perspectives in health and social care.
The organism learns to link a behavior with a positive event, and thus begins to repeat the behavior. When a child has persistent a tantrums it is an outreach to there carer for an attention weather they want something or can't get what they want. In this case operant behavior is occurring on both sides being the carer and the child. The child may have a tantrum if they want some sweets and there carer has said no. if the child continues to have a tantrum the carer will them give into the child and but them some sweets.
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The Developing Child. London: Pearson Education, Inc, 'Piaget did not think that the environment shapes the child. Rather, the child (like the adult) actively seeks to understand the environment.' Piaget's theory is about looking at the world and the different theories and understandings that children have about the exploration of the environment. Piaget had three main points he looked at these were: * assimilation * accommodation * Equilibration. Piaget believed that all babies, toddlers and children grow with the same skills and strategies of the environment.
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Initial rehearsal, maintains the information into the STM but if it is done enough, it enters the LTM. A & S proposed a direct relationship between the amount of rehearsal in the STM and the strength of the LTM - the more something is rehearsed, the better it will be remembered. EVIDENCE 1. Sperling - research has been undertaken to prove the duration of the sensory store. Participants were shown a grid of 12 digits and then either asked to recall all of them or they heard a tone and asked to recall one row.
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How to Interpret Dreams. Ill discuss several theories on dream interpretation. In an online article published in January 2005 entitled How Dreams Work, Lee Ann Obringer discusses a theory from Sigmund Freud, a leading dream theorist.
Top Dream Theories," Kendra Cherry states understanding dreams are important in helping solve problems, processing experiences, and providing insight. In order to truly understand where dreams come from and what they mean, it is important to explore several theories on dream interpretation, understand the meaning behind common dream themes and learn how to interpret your own dreams. First, I'll discuss several theories on dream interpretation. In an online article published in January 2005 entitled "How Dreams Work," Lee Ann Obringer discusses a theory from Sigmund Freud, a leading dream theorist. Freud believes that dreaming allows the mind to act out hidden desires, often s****l in nature.
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Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory. Capacty and duration of each and the results of experiments to test memory.
One of those is George Miller. He conducted a test he called 'The magical number 7, plus or minus 2.' In which he discovered that it is more manageable to remember a series of letters if they are broken down into 'chunks' of 3 each. The reason is that instead of learning different letters, you are now remembering the different blocks of letters. He found that if the chunks are broken up to make short words, we can remember them with ease. This is because LTM comes into action, which is mainly semantic, pairing the words up to their specific meaning; therefore we are able to remember them easier.
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Atypical drugs not only work on positive symptoms but also negative symptoms. Negative symptoms affect the behaviour, feelings or perception of the person with schizophrenia. Many studies have evaluated the effectiveness of both conventional and atypical drugs by comparing the relapse rates of those on medication and those on placebos. Placebos are fake medication. Davis (1980) found a significant difference in terms of relapse rates between drug medication and use of placebos, therefore supporting the use of drugs and their effectiveness.
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Behaviourism and Conditioning.Behaviourists believe that all humans are born with no general knowledge in how to behave as they grow up, they believe we learn this through the environment.
There are three types of reinforcement, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. When positive re enforcement Is introduced this becomes a pleasurable feeling which then encourages that behaviour e.g. if a child comes home with a sticker for good listening, praise and reward would then be introduced so the child feels good and carries on with good listening. All three types of re enforcement have a positive outcome in the end but vary on how long the positive outcome takes.
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The next category is the duration; this is the length of time that a memory can be held, for the sensory memory the duration is anything between 500miliseconds to 2seconds, the duration for ones short term memory it is up to 18seconds, and the duration for ones long term memory can potentially be a life time. Finally there is encoding, this is how the input is represented, for the short term memory this is done acoustically, whereas for ones long term memory encoding is carried out semantically.
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The child builds schemata, mental patterns which enable the individual to understand and interact with the world. Schemas continue to be built upon and develop as an individual encounters new experiences and their learning increases. In order for schemas to develop, a process of assimilation needs to occur, this involves the understanding of new objects, ideas or situations fitting in with existing knowledge. Accommodation occurs when new information is taken in and an existing schema is modified to absorb this knowledge.
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He then compared both of the levels in these types with healthy controls. His results showed much higher Serotonin levels in those women who were recovering from the binging/purging type. Bailer found the highest levels in women who showed the most anxiety and perfectionism, this suggests that constant and persistent disruption of serotonin levels may lead on to higher anxiety, this then may trigger, and make the patient as risk of AN. However, as the link has been found between these women and anxiety and perfectionism, it is questioned whether the alteration in serotonin levels is due to the eating disorder, or whether it is the symptoms of the anxiety causing the disruption in levels.
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This can be found with Policemen, we are more likely to respond to them and obey their orders than a traffic warden. We may still obey the authority figure even if we are asked to do something immoral or unethical. This was found during Milgram's study, the teachers obeyed the researcher because of his legitimate social standing at the prestigious university, Yale.
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Stroop identified a large increase on the time taken by participants to complete the NCW tasks, an effect still occurred despite continued practice at each task. There are two theories that may explain the stroop effect. These are: > Speed of processing Theory: (Appendix A) > Selective Attention Theory: (Appendix B) Since the development of the Stroop task, it has utilized the Stroop effect to investigate aspects of such varied psychological disorders as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Schizophrenia, and Anorexia.
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from early childhood * speech and has a good vocabulary * and read and write - doesn't remember doing either The case study of HM who suffered from epilepsy of such severity that it couldn't be controlled by drugs. HM underwent a drastic surgery, surgeons removed the hippocampus (small structure found in both hemispheres of the forebrain) from both sides of his brain. HM's personality and intellect remained intact but his memory was affected. He had no memory for events following the operation.
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The importance of reflecting on what you are doing, as part of the learning process, has been emphasised by many theorists. Reflective Observation is the second stage by Kolb (1984). The other stages include concrete experience, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The ability to reflect while doing something (in) and after you have done (on) it has become an important feature of educational practices, and it is highly encouraged. It can be argued that reflective practice needs another person as mentor, because it can be very difficult for one to criticise them selves or to realise that something can be improved.
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however he believed that our STM span is determined on how many chunks of information we remember rather than the number of individual letters or numbers which Jacob believed. Miller found that participants can remember between 5 and 9 chunks of information at any one time. Miller believed that chunks were the basic unit of the STM, he called this "Miller's chunking theory" and disagreed with "Jacobs digit span theory" which he believed was a vague look on the Short term memory.
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Through his experiments he discovered that if a particular neutral stimulus NS; with no inborn reflex response, such as a bell ringing, was combined with an UCS such as food then the dogs would learn to associate that NS with the UCS, and thus the NS would trigger salivation on its own. The NS had now become a conditioned stimulus CS, and the UCS a conditioned reflex CR; stimulus and reflex learned through association. John B. Watson is often referred to as the father of behaviourism.
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Attribution Theory. The main factors in attributing causes are Dispositional Attribution- the behaviour is caused by a characteristic of that person, and Situational Attribution- the behaviour is caused by their physical or social environment.
The results of this information decides if we attribute the behaviour to the person, the situation, or both. For each of the pieces of information, use the example of a person scared of a particular dog. The first piece of information is Consensus. This is the amount that other people have the same behaviour as the person . If lots of people have the same behaviour (e.g. are scared of the same dog) consensus is high. If a very small amount of people have the same behaviour, consensus is low. The second piece of information is Consistency. This is the amount the behaviour has happened in the past.
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Twenty participants were split into two groups and were asked to observe 16 magazine adverts. Each participant in each group was asked to recall the adverts they were shown in the order they believed they saw them. Both groups viewed the same advertisements but they were shown in different orders to each group. To ensure the most valid results, adverts which came in the middle (positions 5-12) of the block for the first group (Group A) were placed in primacy and recency positions (positions 1-4 and 13-16) for the second group (group B). The results of the experiment showed there was a greater than 5% difference between condition A (primacy and recency positions 1-4 and 13-16)
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An experiment to investigation the effect of sorting words by their meaning and sorting words by their font style on the number of words correctly recalled.
Introduction When trying to learn a specific piece of information teachers always discourage students from copying the information out of a textbook because it is possible for the student to read the text and write down the information 'word perfect' and still not know what the text is about. Whereas, when a student reads the text and then writes it down in his/her own words they have to understand the information, and therefore, they are far more likely to remember it because they link it to information, which has been previously stored in their long-term memory and so are processing it at a deeper level.
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